What It Means To Be A Muslim? Who Is Actually Entitled To Be Called A Muslim?

Chapter (1)

How to become a Muslim In my Aqeedah (Belief, Faith)?

(1) The Islamic Aqeedah

Its Meaning and Importance

A. Importance of Aqeedah.

The first condition for anyone to belong to the religion of Islam is to have the right belief in all matters of Aqeedah.

·         Ibn Abbas narrated: When Allah’s Messenger sent Mu’az to Yemen, He said, (You will come upon the people of the book (Christians and Jews), let your first act is to call them to testify’ that: There is nothing worthy of worship in truth but Allah. If they acknowledge Allah, then inform them that Allah has obligated upon them five prayers during their days and nights)[1]. This narration is clear; it does not require much of an explanation. Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) applied this principle in his practical calling to Islam. And that is the pattern upon which the companions were brought up.

·         Jundub Ibn ‘Abd Allah Al-Bajaly said: (We learned faith and then we learned the Qur’an and it increased our faith).

·         Abd Allah Ibn ‘Umar said: (We lived during an instant of time in which one of us would receive Faith first before receiving the Qur’an and when the verses were revealed we would learn what they permitted and what they prohibited and what they forbade and what they ordered and what should be the stance towards them. But I have seen many men from whom one is given the Qur’an before Faith and he reads it from the opening of the Book to its closing and he does not know what it orders and what it forbids and what should be his stance towards it. He is like someone who is just throwing out dates, i.e.: he does not get any benefit from his recital).

·         Imam Abu Hanifah said: (Understanding in the religion first[2], and then understanding in the science[3]. Aqeedah must be corrected first, then, follows all of the other aspects of the religion).

·         Imam Shafi’e said: (That a servant meets Allah with every sin except Shirk is better than meeting Him upon any of the innovated beliefs).

B. Meaning of Aqeedah

A. The Lexical Meaning:

The Arabic term Aqeedah is derived from the verb (Aqada) meaning to firmly bind and knot.

Whatsoever settles in the heart in a firm and definitive manner is said to be that person’s (Aqeedah). In Arabic, one states, (Aqada Al-Habl) (The rope was tied) when the rope was pulled tight together.

Allah says in the Qur’an (interpretation of the meaning): (As for those with whom you have made a pledge “Aqadat”)[4]

Also Allah says: (Allah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He will surely call you to account for the intentional and deliberate oaths you make “Bima ‘Aqqadtum Al-Ayman”)[5], which means asserted and adhered to, as proven in the verse (interpretation of the meaning): (and do not break any oaths after they have been confirmed)[6].

If one says: (Aqad’tu such and such) it means his heart is firm upon such and such.

The word (iatiqad) (belief) is also derived from this root, and has the meaning of tying up and making strong.

The phrase (iataqadttu Kaza) (I believe such and such) means: I am convinced of it in my heart; this is a rational conviction.



B. The Legal Meaning:

The Islamic Aqeedah or iatiqad, according to the scholars of Islam, refers to those matters, which are believed in, with certainty and conviction, in one’s heart and soul. They are not tainted with any doubt or uncertainty.

2. Principles Of Islamic Aqeedah

(A) My belief must be in accordance with the Book of Allah (the Qur’an) and the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him).

Sources for the Islamic Aqeedah

The issues of Islamic Aqeedah are (Taw’qifiyyah), meaning that it is only established through legal (Sharia) evidences. So, Islamic Aqeedah has two fundamental sources:

1. The Book of Allah: The Qur’ân is the final revelation of Allah, which was revealed upon His final Messenger Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him).

2. The authentic Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him).

Allah said: (He does not speak from his own desire. This is an inspired revelation)[7].

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

(The Messenger has believed in the guidance, which has been revealed to him from his Lord and so do the faithful. They all believe in Allah and His Angels, His Books and His Messengers: We discriminate against none of His Messengers). They say: We have heard the message and submitted to it. Grant us Your forgiveness, Lord,; to You we shall all return)[8].

In a famous Hadith[9], Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) said:

Jibreel said: “Then tell me about Iman (Faith).” Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) replied: “Iman is to believe in:

1. Allah (i.e. to believe firmly that Allah is the Creator, Who alone has the right to be worshipped and that He has Names and

Attributes which befit His Majesty and He does not resemble His

Creation, “There is nothing like Him”)[10].

2. His angels (i.e. that they are created from light and that they implement the Commands of Allah and that we do not see them).

3. His Books (i.e. the Tauraah, the Injeel, the Zaboor and the Qur`an, which abrogates all previous Revelations).

4. His Messengers (the first of whom was Nuh (Peace Be Upon Him) and the last of whom was Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him).

5. The Last Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection when all of mankind will be held to account).

6. And to believe in Al-Qadar, the good and the bad of it (i.e. to accept all that Allah ordains for us, at the same time undertaking the necessary action to achieve our objectives)[11].”

So, in Islam, Aqeedah refers to the matters which are known from the Qur’an and sound Ahadith, and which the Muslim must believe in his heart, in acknowledgement of the truth of Allah and His Messenger. It is a Must for every person to believe in them as in the same manner that the early generations of Muslims[12] believed them as well as the great scholars who demonstrated good deeds, righteousness, piety and rooted understanding of the Religion of Allah.

(B) To be a Muslim in my Aqeedah, it is Must to have belief in the following:  

1. I must believe that the creator of this entire universe is the Great, Wise, Capable, All- knowing and Self-subsisting Ilah [God]. 

The proof for this is that the universe is so perfect, beautiful, and well arranged that if part of it were removed it would not be suitable for any life.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[Had there been other deities (Aalihah) than Allah in the heavens and the earth, then certainly, both of them (the Heavens and the Earth) would have gone out of order. So, absolutely free is Allah, the Owner of the Throne, from those false things they attribute to Him][13].

The fact is that, it is Allah alone who upholds this universe lest it comes to naught. Should it come to naught, none could uphold it back but Allah.

2. I must believe that Allah [the creator] did not create this universe in play or in jest, because it is impossible for the Perfect to be seeking amusement.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[What a pity! You did not realize it then. Did you think that We (Allah) had created you without any purpose, and that you would never be returned to us? So, Exalted is Allah, the true and Real sovereign: None has the right to be worshipped but He: He is the master of the Glorious Throne)[14].

3. I must believe that Allah Has raised the Messengers and has sent the Sacred Scriptures, so that all created beings may Know Allah and understand the reality of the Creator, recognize the ultimate purpose for which people are created, and know that they will not be left to an end; they will be called to account for all that they did while alive, whether good or evil.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[And certainly, We [Allah] sent to every community a messenger, with the command: worship Allah and keep away from the false deities. After that Allah showed guidance to some of them, while deviation took hold of others][15].

The last of those messengers is Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) whom Allah supported Him with the Qur’an, the only miracle that lasts forever.

4. I must believe that the reason for our existence is to know, obey and worship Allah.

The ultimate purpose for which man is established on earth is:

(a) To accomplish the designs of Allah and render account to Allah for his acts.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[Behold! Allah, your Lord, said to the Angels: ‘I am going to appoint a vicegerent (Khalifah)][16].

(b) To be devoted on earth to the service of Allah.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[I [Allah] have not created Jinn and mankind, but to worship Me. I do not ask any sustenance of them and I do not ask that they should feed Me. Allah Himself is The Sustainer, The Owner of Power and Mighty][17].

(C) And to enjoy the fruits of the earth and take advantage of its marvels, within the bounds of Divine Law, which regulates all needs of human being.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[It is He Who brought you into being from the earth and gave you means to dwell upon it][18].

It is this that Allah has ordained on all people and indeed He has created them for this purpose.

5. I must believe that the reward for the believer is Paradise and the punishment for the disbeliever is Hell.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[A party shall be in Paradise and another party in the blazing fire][19].

6. I must believe that human beings carry out the good and the evil deeds by their own choice and free will.

Good deeds that caused by obeying Allah and His Messenger are attributed to Allah since He is The One Who aided the servant to perform it.

Bad deeds that caused by disobeying Allah and His Messenger cannot be attributable but to the servant, its doer, nor is it right to attribute it to Allah.

Having committed a bad deed by one’s own choice and free will does not mean that he has created his deed by himself, rather it shows that the creator is Allah, The One Who created him and his will and free down of choice.

If Allah had wished to prevent His servant from committing a good deed or a bad deed and had He wished, He would have been able to do that, but He had not done it.

Allah says [interpretation of the meaning]:

[And by the human self and Him Who perfected it in proportion and showed it what is wrong and what is right, truly he succeeds who purifies his own self and truly he fails who corrupts his own self][20].

In another Ayah, Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[Every soul is entangled in what he has earned][21].

7. I must believe that legislation is for Allah alone. He is the only Ruling Judge, the only Author of laws, and that no human being may enact laws than those established by Allah.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[It is for Allah to give Judgment in whatever you may differ][22].

And all we humans can do is to derive the rules and regulations from what He has prescribed.

The Divine Law is the only one law, which ought to be followed and that is the Shari’ah from Allah.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[Then We have set You, O prophet, upon a clear way of Shari’ah ordained by [Allah], so follow it and do not follow the desires of those who have no knowledge][23].

The Shari’ah of Islam is a comprehensive system that deals with all aspects of life, individual as well as communal.

By The Shari’ah of Allah is meant everything Legislated by Allah for ordering man’s life, it includes the principles of believes and concepts, principles of administration and justice, principles of morality and human relationships and principles of knowledge.

The Shari’ah of Allah cannot be overruled. It is known that the total address of Islam to its followers is called Shari’ah and the primary sources of the Shari’ah (Islamic laws) are the Holy Qur’an and The Sunnah [the traditions of Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) consisting of His sayings, deeds, His approval or disapproval of something done before Him].

Ijtihad is the term indicating the utilization of available evidence to think out the best course to be taken, provided it does not conflict with the Qur’an or Sunnah or with the goals of Shari’ah. If there is a clear Nass [text] available from The Qur’an and The Sunnah then that will be decisive and no room Ijtihad [using one’s own judgment].

As for those cases regarding which no such clear judgment is available and for those cases regarding which no legal text has been revealed then the times comes for Ijtihad and that according to well-defined principles which are consistent with Allah’s religion and not merely following opinions or desires. 

8. I must think about the creation and not about the Creator Himself.

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said, [Think about the creations of Allah but not about His very nature (Dhat), because you can never compass Him][24].

9. I must belief that the Creator, in His wisdom, made Himself known to His creation through names and attributes that suit His Majesty, which a believer should memorize.

The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:

[Allah has ninety-nine Names, one hundred but one. Everyone who memorizes them enters Paradise, He is One (Witr), and He loves the Witr][25]. In another narration[26], He says: [Whosoever counts them].

10. I must belief that the characteristics of Allah are the perfection of godhood.

In the Qur’an, many of these characters are mentioned. Some of those holy verses inform us about the existence of Allah. Some contain a reference to the attributes of eternity and permanence of Allah.

Some contain a clear reference that Allah is beyond occurrence and that He is above being a child or a father or having an equal or a similar.

Some contain a reference to the fact that He is self-sufficient and does not need His creatures but it is they who need Him.

Some indicate that He is One in His being, One in His attributes, One in His actions and deeds. There is no Lord but Him and no deity but Him. 

Some point to the vastness of His power and wonderful magnitude of His greatness.

Some confirm the existence of the will of Allah and that it supersedes every other.

Some indicate the vastness of the knowledge of Allah and His awareness of everything small or large, minute or great.

Some indicate that He has the attribute of hearing and sight.

Some indicate that He has the attribute of speech.

11. I am obligated to believe and accept everything that is mentioned in the verses of the holy Qur’an, or that is correctly attributed to Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) concerning Allah’s names and His attributes. Recognizing the reality of the creator, believing in His oneness and glorifying Him are the most sublime beliefs of Islam.

Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[Allah is The One Who has revealed to You, O Prophet, the Book, some of its verses are Muhkamat [precise in meaning] they are the foundation of the Book, and other Verses which are Mutashabihat (ambiguous)][27]. 

Muh’kamt in the Qur’an and Sunnah:


These are the texts that have only one meaning according to the rules of the Arabic language, and its Meaning or interpretation is clearly known.

Example of this type of verses is (interpretation of the meaning): [None is equal to Him][28].

Mutashabihat in the Qur’an and Sunnah:


These are the texts that can have more than one meaning according to the rules of the Arabic language, and its Meaning or interpretation is not clearly known.

Example of this type of Verses is [interpretation of the meaning]: [Al-Rahman, The Merciful [Allah] rose over the throne][29].

Example of this type of Ahadith [interpretation of the meaning]: In a Hadith transmitted by Imam Muslim, Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) asked the slave girl: Where is [Allah]? , She said: Above the heavens, He (Peace Be Upon Him) said: [Free her, for indeed she is a believer].

The Methodology of Salaf and Khalaf for explaining the Mutashabihat in the Qur’an and Sunnah:

(1) The Methodology of Salaf:

Definition of Salaf:

The Scholars of Salaf were the Scholars of the first three centuries after the Hijrah of Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him).

Position of Salaf regarding the texts containing Allah’s names and attributes:

The Scholars of Salaf said: [we are obligated to believe in these Verses and Ahadith as they are, to affirm its wording, to abandon opposing its literal meaning and to return the precise knowledge of it to the one who stated it and we entrust it upon the one who transmitted it. Thus, they affirm their belief that the words: (Allah’s hand, eye, eyes, settling Himself firmly on the Throne, laughter, wondering…etc.) cannot be explained in terms that we can understand, and therefore their explanation should be left only to Allah who knows their true meaning.

This is especially so in view of the prohibition by Allah’s Messenger(Peace Be Upon Him): [Think about the creations of Allah but not about His very nature (Dhat), because you can never compass Him].

(2) The Methodology of Khalaf:

Definition of Khalaf:

The Scholars of Khalaf were the Scholars who lived after the first three centuries.

Position of Khalaf regarding the texts containing Allah’s names and attributes:

The Scholars of Khalaf said: [We categorically state that the meanings of the words of these Verses and Ahadith should not to be taken literally but they should be understood as metaphors, the interpretation of which can do no harm].

In this way, they tended to interpret (a face’) as (essence/self’), (the hand) as (ability) etc., in order to avoid the suspicion of comparing Allah to His creatures.

The difference between Salaf and Khalaf regarding [Allah]’s names and attributes:

Now you know that the Scholars of Salaf used to interpret Mutashabihat in the following way:

They agree upon acknowledging, accepting, and confirming what has been mentioned in the Qur’an and The Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) concerning Allah’s names and attributes without turning towards the use of Ta’weel (distortive misinterpretation).

While the Scholars of Khalaf used to give specific meanings to Mutashabihat in compliance with the Arabic language and the Deen (Ta’weel) and avoid any suspicion of comparing Allah to His creatures (Tan’zeeh).

Their positions can be summed up as follows.

(1) Both parties agreed on the doctrine of Tanzeeh.

They do not reject Mutashabihat. Nor do they negate them. Nor do they change their meaning with something that contradicts what is literally apparent from them. Nor do they compare them to the attributes of the creation. And neither of them attributes anything to Allah that does not befit Him.

(2) Both parities did agree on the principle of Ta’weel [metaphorical explanation] which goes against the fundamentals of Shari’ah is inadmissible.

In this way, the dispute was limited to interpreting words in accordance with the Shari’ah and The Arabic Language and this is not a significant matter as you can see.

Khalaf was more definitive in explaining the intended meaning. They were forced to do so in order to protect the creed of Islam. They lived at a time when Ordinary Muslims started to lose their natural disposition for the Arabic language.

Seeing that Muslims become weaker in Arabic language, the scholars of Khalaf feared that those with perversity in their hearts would read meanings into Mutashabihat that do not befit Allah.

Their aim was to protect Ordinary Muslims from such a misconception.

So, the Scholars of Khalaf followed the example of the Scholars among the Salaf who chose to give specific meanings to Mutashabihat.

Thus the difference between the two parties does not warrant arguments or recrimination.

(3) Each party categorically stated that:

Using words of these texts with reference to Allah cannot possibly indicate the literal meanings that are used in reference to human beings.

This follows from their agreement on the incomparability of Allah.

(4) Each of the two parties realized that:

Words are either coined to express feelings in the heart or to refer to material things relevant to users of each language.

No language, however rich it may be, can include expressions about objects unknown to its speakers.

Since the facts regarding The Essence of Allah fall outside human knowledge, then language cannot possibly express them.

Therefore trying to define the meanings of these words (denoting attributes of Allah) is a waste of time.

Imam Hasan ibn Ahmed abd al-Rahman al-Banna says:

[We believe that the position of the Scholars of Salaf: (reciting Mutashabihat and reading the reports about them and the statements of approval regarding them without rejecting any part of them or attempting to interpret them on our own) is safer and should be followed in order to avoid problems resulting from Ta’weel (metaphorical interpretation) on the one hand, and the nullification of Allah’s attributes on the other.

If you are one of those whom Allah has endowed with the tranquility of faith and whose hearts have been blessed with the serenity of certitude, you need not seek other positions.

On the other hand, we believe that Ta’weel (The metaphorical interpretations) of Khalaf do not sanction any judgment on them as having gone outside Islam or to stray from the right path, Nor do they justify that long dispute between them and others past and present, because Islam is vast and comprehensive enough to accommodate all of them.

(5) Muslims nowadays have to stand aloof from the disagreement that exists among the Scholars concerning these texts.

It is enough for us to adopt the attitude of Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) and His Companions [And those who are grounded in knowledge say: We believe in it, it is all from our Lord][30].

In a beautiful story reported by AL-Khattab, Ibn Al-Jawzi, Ibn Al-Qyyem and Ibn Kather, Mohammed Ibn Abd Al-Rahman Al-Darami said to a man who was speaking of a Bid’ah (An innovation) and calling the people towards it:

Did Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him), Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali have knowledge of it, or did they not have knowledge of it?

The man said: They did not have knowledge of it.

He said: So something that they had no knowledge of, you know? The man said: Then I say that they did know it.

He said: Was it sufficient for them that they not speak about it nor call the people towards it, or was it not sufficient for them? The man said: Of course it was sufficient for them.

He said: So something that was sufficient for Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) and His Khulafaa’ is not sufficient for you?!

So the man refrained from his call.

The Khalifah, who was present there, said: May Allah not suffice the one who is not satisfied by what they found sufficient.

In this respect, Professor Abu-Hasan-Nadawi writes in his valuable work, Islam and the World:

[The Prophets had imparted to man the true knowledge of Allah’s existence and His attributes and actions. They had laid the foundations upon which man could erect the edifice of his own spiritual conduct without getting involved in the fruitless metaphysical discussion on (being) and (knowing.) But man heeded not. Instead of being grateful for Divine guidance, he allowed the ship of his thought to drift on uncharted seas. He behaved like an explorer who, sitting aside the geographical charts and maps, tries to scale every height, fathom every depth, and measure every distance on his own initiative. The results of such endeavors can at least be a few sketchy notes and incomplete hints picked up here and there. So when the people tried to reach Allah with the help of reason alone and without the aid of light furnished by the Prophet’s teachings, the knowledge of Allah gathered by them consisted of little else besides random thoughts, conflicting theories, and haphazard conclusions][31].

12. I must worship Allah, and associate none with Him. This is the message, which Allah has sent with every prophet.

The Qur’an says (interpretation of the meaning):

[And certainly, We [Allah] sent to every community a messenger, with the command: worship Allah and keep away from the false deities][32].

13. I must fear Allah and only Allah. This fear should prevent me from doing anything not acceptable by Him.

The Qur’an says, (interpretation of the meaning):

[Those that obey Allah and His Messenger, fear Allah and attain Taqwa will surely triumph][33].

In another Verse, Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[Verily, those that fear their Lord, although they cannot see Him shall be forgiven and richly rewarded)[34].

14. I must remember Allah all the time. This is the best treatment for our afflictions and distress.

The Qur’an says, (interpretation of the meaning):

[He ‘Allah’ guides to Himself all who turn to Him: those who have faith and whose hearts find satisfaction in the remembrance of Allah, for without doubt, in the Remembrance of Allah human hearts find satisfaction)[35].

In another Verse, Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[And whosoever turns himself away from Allah’s remembrance we appoint for him A Satan to be a companion to him][36].

Dr; Breil affirms this fact saying, [A truly pious person never suffer any mental disorders].

Dale Carnegie, as well, says: [Psychiatrists realize that Strong faith in and adherences to the religion are enough to banish the sense of anxiety and nervous tension and to heal similar sorts of maladies].

15. 1 must love Allah. Love, which makes my heart, connected to Him, love, which excites me to do more and more good, and to sacrifice everything in His cause. Nothing should stop me from Jihad, be they vanities of the world, or close relationships.

The Qur’an says (interpretation of the meaning): [O prophet, tell them plainly: if your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your near and dear ones, the property you have gained, the trade you fear may decline, and the homes you love- if all these things- are dearer to you than Allah and His messenger and Jihad (struggle) in His way, then wait until Allah shall fulfill His decree, for Allah does not guide the wicked people][37].

In His Hadith Allah’s Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) said (interpretation of the meaning): [Whoever possesses the following Three qualities will have the sweetness of belief: the one to whom Allah and His Messenger becomes dearer than anything else, who loves a person and he loves him only for Allah’s sake and who hates to revert to Shirk (disbelieve) as he hates to be thrown into the fire after Allah has brought him from it][38].

16. I must put my trust in Allah in every work I do. This will encourage me to do everything no matter how difficult it is.

The Qur’an says (interpretation of the meaning):

(Allah is All-Sufficient for the man who puts his trust in Him)[39].

Abdullah bin Abbas said:

[One day I was behind the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and he said to me: Young man, I shall teach you some words (of advice): Be mindful of Allah and He will protect you. Be mindful of Allah and you will find Him in front of you. If you ask, ask from Allah; if you seek help, seek help from Allah. Know that if people were to get together to benefit you with something, they do so only with what Allah had already prescribed for you, and that if they were to gather together to harm you with something, they would do so only with what Allah had already prescribed for you. The pens have been lifted and the pages have dried][40].

17. I must give thanks to Allah for His innumerable graces and his favors.

The Qur’an says (interpretation of the meaning):

[Allah has brought you out of your mothers’ wombs while you knew nothing and He gave you ears and eyes and hearts so that you might have cause to be grateful][41].

In another Verse, Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[The dead land is a sign for these people, We gave it life and produced grain from it, so that they eat of it, and We planted it with the palm and the vine and watered it with gushing springs, so that they may eat of its fruits, it is not their hands which have made all this, should they not give thanks?)[42].

Allah has promised those who give thanks ever increasing grace and those who do not, ever increasing loss: (interpretation of the meaning):

[And when your Lord declared: if you give thanks I would certainly bestow abundance upon you and if you deny My favors My chastisements is truly severe][43].

18. I must seek Allah’s forgiveness all the time. This will absolve my sins, renew my repentance and give me rest and tranquility.

The Qur’an says (interpretation of the meaning):

[And those who if they commit evil or wrong their souls, remember Allah instantly and seek forgiveness for their sins and who but Allah can forgive sin? And who do not knowingly persist in their misdeeds, the reward of such will be forgiveness from their Lord][44].

And in another Verse, Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

[He that does a sinful thing or wrongs his own soul and then implore Allah’s forgiveness will find Allah Forgiving and Merciful][45].

19. I must do everything with Allah in my vision and realizing what He says in the Qur’an.

The Qur’an says (interpretation of the meaning):

[There is no secret counsel of three but Allah is their fourth, nor five but Allah is their sixth, nor less than that or more but Allah is with them wherever they are, then on the day of resurrection He will inform them of their doings, verily Allah has the knowledge of everything][46].



1. To be a Muslim: Fathi Yakan

2. Al-Aqaaid: Hasan al-Banna 





















[1] [Bukhari, Muslim]

[2] [Fiqh Akbar or ‘Aqeedah]

[3] [Shari’ah]

[4]  an-Nisaa: 33

[5]  Al-Maa’dah 5:89

[6]  Al-Nahl 91

[7]  an-Najm: 3-4

[8]  [Al-Baqarah 2:285]

[9] describes how Jibreel came to Him and asked Him about Islam etc.

[10] Surat Ash-Shooraa 42:11

[11]  Narrated by Muslim

[12]  The companions, the followers and those who followed on their path

[13] [Qur’an: Al-Anbiya’a, 22]

[14] [Qur’an Al-Mu’minoon: 115-116]

[15] [Qur’an: Nahl, 36]

[16]  [Qur’an 2/30]

[17]  [Qur’an 51:56-58]

[18]  [Qur’an 11/61]

[19]  [Qur’an: Shura, 7]

[20]  [Qur’an Shams 7-10]

[21]  [Qur’an, Muddather, 38]

[22]  [Qur’an 42/10]

[23]  [Qur’an 42/18]

[24]  [Abu Na’eem & As’bahani]

[25]  [Bukhari & Muslim]

[26]  Bukhari

[27]  [Qur’an 3/5]

[28]  [Shuraa; 11]

[29]  [Taha; 5]

[30]  [Qur’an 3/7]

[31]  [Nadawi, Islam And The World [PP. 62 – 63]

[32] [Qur’an: Nahl, 36]

[33]  [Qur’an 24/52]

[34]  [Qur’an 67/12]

[35]  [Qur’an 13:28]

[36]  [Qur’an 43/36]

[37]  [Qur’an 9/24]

[38]  [Sahih Hadith]

[39]  [Qur’an 65/3]

[40]  [Related by AI-Tirmidhi]

[41]  [Qur’an 16:78]

[42]  [Qur’an 34-35]

[43]  [Qur’an Ibraham (7)]

[44]  [Qur’an 3/135-136]

[45]  [Qur’an 4/110]

[46]  [Qur’an 58/7]


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