Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives
By: Dr. Wahid A. Al-Hindi, Professor of Public Administration, Chairperson of Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University
Time Management from an Islamic Perspective
As a process, time management involves the typical functions of planning, organizing, directing, control and decision-making.  This chapter discusses these functions with specific reference to relevant Qur’anic verses and the Prophet’s Sunnah under the following headings:
3. 1 Time Management in the Glorious Qur’an
3. 2 Time Management in the Purified Sunnah
3. 1 Time Management in the Glorious Qur’an
In what follows, the functions of time management will be defined with reference to relevant Qur’anic verses.
3. 1. 1 Planning
In Surat Yusuf, the Glorious Qur’an provides a good example of planning. Allah says, “(43) And the king said: Lo! I saw in a dream seven fat kine which seven lean were eating, and seven green ears of corn and other (seven) dry. O notables! Expound for me my vision, if ye can interpret dreams. (44) They answered: Jumbled dreams! And we do not know in the interpretation of dreams. (45) And he of the two, who was released, and (now) at length remembered, said: I am going to announce unto you the interpretation, therefore send me forth. (46) (And when he came to Joseph in the prison, he exclaimed): Joseph! O thou truthful one! Expound for us the seven fat kine which seven lean were eating and the seven green ears of corn and other (seven) dry, that I may return unto the people, so that they may know. (47) He said: Ye shall sow seven years as usual, but that which ye reap, leave it in the ear, all save a little which ye eat. (48) Then after that will come seven hard years which will devour all that ye have prepared for them, save a little of that which ye have stored. (49) Then, after that, will come a year when the people will have plenteous crops and when they will press (wine and oil). “
The above verses show how Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) (May Allah’s blessings be him) planned for future years, and how planning does not contradict faith, but is a legitimate measure for dealing with problems.
Yusuf’s plan mentioned in the verses represents the first planned budget scientifically drawn. He drew a balance between the production, storing and consumption of wheat in Pharaoh’s Ancient Egypt during the expected years of drought and those of prosperity. The following reflect the elements of that planned budget :
i. balancing agricultural production and consumption with the purpose of overcoming the years of drought and shortage of crops;
ii. Taking the time factor into consideration by preparing two seven-year plans, each corresponding with the years of expected drought and prosperity;
iii. The budget as some kind of a long-term plan extending 14 years; and
d. the budget’s use of a control mechanism for the accurate implementation of the plan.
What Yusuf actually set, as inspired by Allah, was a time plan for utilizing time during the years of prosperity to double production and store the produce in a scientific way in order to make use of it during the drought years.
Regarding Islamic planning, it is defined as “the collective style of work that takes the necessary measures for dealing with certain future expectations, that is based on a religious, intellectual approach compatible with divine destiny and trust in Allah, and that pursues the achievement of the legitimate goal of worshipping Allah while building this world.”
Another definition of Islamic planning is “the individual or collective intellectualization or reflection on the performance of a certain legitimate future activity while linking it to the will of Allah, taking the legitimate measures necessary for its achievement, trusting in Allah and believing in the unseen with regard to the outcomes, which Allah has destined and allowed.”
The first definition above limits planning to collective work, whereas the second includes both collective and individual work. Both definitions view the planning process in management in general terms.
Within the adopted methodological framework of time management, the present study suggests the following definition for planning in Islamic management: reflection on drawing legitimate goals, identifying the available and legally recognized resources, exerting the efforts in investing those resources in order to achieve the set goals within the shortest possible time, while trusting in Allah’s destiny with respect to outcomes.
The above definition is considered inclusive of all the stages of the planning process, from reflection and intellectualization, to setting goals and taking the legitimate measures toward their achievement, and finally to accepting Allah’s destiny with respect to outcomes.
Let us examine the most important elements of Islamic planning in the light of the Qur’an.
3. 1. 1. 1 Defining Objectives
Defining objectives is considered one of the outstanding characteristics of planning advocated by the Qur’an. Allah says, “(22) Is he who goeth groping on his face more rightly guided, or he who walketh upright on a beaten road?” Undoubtedly, the one who is directed by an end or objective is guided compared to the one that is not directed.
3. 1. 1. 2 Establishing Priorities
Once defined, goals are to be prioritized in terms of importance. Giving priority to the implementation of the most important goals is conducive to saving time. Commanding the Prophet to call people to Islam and warn them, Allah says, “(1) O thou enveloped in thy cloak, (2) Arise and warn!” For this mission Allah defined the priority of calling and warning the nearest of kin; He says, “(214) And warn thy tribe of near kindred.” When warning against the Hell Fire and advising seeking protection against it, Allah commands the individual to begin with himself, then his own family: “(6) O ye who believe! Ward off from yourselves and your families a Fire whereof the fuel is men and stones, over which are set angels strong, severe, who resist not Allah in that which He commandeth them, but do that which they are commanded. “
3. 1. 1. 3 Investment of all Available Resources
Allah says, “(15) He it is who hath made the earth subservient unto you, so walk in the paths thereof and eat of His providence. And unto Him will be the resurrection (of the dead). “ He also says, “(32) Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth, and causeth water to descend from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you, and maketh the ships to be of service unto you, that they may run upon the sea at His command, and hath made of service unto you the rivers; (33) And maketh the sun and the moon, constant in their courses, to be of service unto you, and hath made of service unto you the night and the day. (34) And He giveth you of all ye ask of Him, and if ye would count the bounty of Allah ye cannot reckon it. Lo! Man is verily a wrong-doer, an ingrate. “ Allah has provided man with so many resources that he cannot count them. The most important of the resources Allah has provided for man’s benefit is time.
3. 1. 1. 4 Taking Necessary Legitimate Measures
Goals cannot be achieved without the necessary input of efforts and measures into investing all available resources. Related to this is the Qur’anic call: “(60) Make ready for them all thou canst of (armed) force.” The means to the set goals have to be legitimate, for in Islam the end does not justify the means if the latter is not allowed.
18.104.22.168 Acceptance of Outcomes Ordained by Allah
Typical of Islamic planning is defining goals, taking practical measures toward their achievement and accepting the outcomes as ordained by Allah. In this respect Allah says to the Prophet and all Muslims, “(23) And say not of anything: Lo! I shall do that tomorrow, (24) except if Allah will…. “
3. 1. 2 Organizing
Organizing is considered an important requirement for successful administrative work. “It is a basic managerial function. It involves the identification of all possible activities in an organization and their classification into sets of tasks. Each task is assigned to the person with relevant qualifications and skills. This entails the definition of rights and responsibilities and of the internal relationships among the organization’s personnel, and the definition of external relationships with individuals as well as organizations. All these are done in accordance with Islamic Shari’ah for the sake of achieving legitimate goals. “
In view of the definition of the organizing element, let us explore the most important characteristics of organizing in the Glorious Qur’an in terms of the following points:
3. 1. 2. 1 Hierarchy of Positions
In every business organization (for goods or services), there are a number of staff. They vary in position and rank due to the variation in specialties, experience and job-related abilities. Regarding such variation, Allah says, “(32)…. We have apportioned among them their livelihood in the life of the world, and raised some of them above others in rank that some of them may take labor from others. …” In other words, “the differences among people make them at the service of each other and make them contributors to each other’s livelihood.” This is expressed by the poet Abul-’Ala’ Al-Ma’arry in these verses:
“People to people, Bedouin or urban, all are To each other servants though unaware.”
In a job hierarchy one is required to obey the instructions of one’s boss in Ma’rouf matters (Islamically legitimate matters). Allah says, “(59) O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the messenger and those of you who are in authority; and if ye have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the messenger if ye are (in truth) believers in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and more seemly in the end. “
22.214.171.124 Division of Labour and Task Assignment
According to the Qura’nic story of Prophet Yusuf, “(55) He said: Set me over the storehouses of the land. Lo! I am a skilled custodian. “ Obviously, Yusuf “recommends himself for a position similar to that of a minister of finance and supplies in modern terms. It is a position concerned with figures, statistics, funds, planning, storing and distribution. Such tasks require knowledge and care; two qualifications Yusuf stressed about himself when recommending himself for the position. “ Naturally, caring or looking after the store houses demands justice and trust, two requirements of an Islamic concept of management.
Another relevant Qur’anic statement is: “(122) And the believers should not all go out to fight. Of every troop of them, a party only should go forth, that they (who are left behind) may gain sound knowledge in religion, and that they may warn their folk when they return to them, so that they may beware. “ This verse is considered an example of division of labour and task assignment. There is a directive for Muslims in that situation not to all go for fighting in the battlefield. Only one group should go while the others remain to learn their religion from the Prophet so that they can teach their own people when they return. 
Allah also says, “(4) Allah hath not assigned unto any man two hearts within his body…. “ This verse is considered a clear indication of man’s inability to perform too many tasks at one time. It was revealed to refute the claim that man had two ‘hearts’ for reasoning. 
Delegation of tasks and executive power to others is considered a step forward toward good management of time and achievement of objectives. The Qur’anic story of Prophet Musa (Moses) reflects such delegation. Musa realized the seriousness of having to deal with Pharaoh, so he asked Allah for assistance by sending his brother with him to share the execution of the mission. According to the Qur’an, Musa said, “(29) Appoint for me a henchman from my folk, (30) Aaron, my brother. (31) Confirm my strength with him. (32) And let him share my task, (33) that we may glorify Thee much. (34) And much remember Thee. “ These verses indicate, in addition to seeking assistance in accomplishing missions,  one’s freedom to choose one’s assistants.
Prophet Yusuf’s story in the Qur’an provides another example of delegation; the ruler of Egypt delegated to him the responsibilities of ‘the minister of finance’ so that Yusuf could draw and implement necessary long-term agricultural plans. In this regard, the Qur’an says, “(56) Thus gave we power to Joseph in the land. He was the owner of it where he pleased. “ As explained by Ibn-Katheer, the land refers to Egypt,  which Allah designated for Yusuf’s settlement. Evidently, Yusuf had the freedom to take the appropriate measures that were compatible with the set plans and objectives. Such freedom creates the atmosphere necessary for creative work.
Such power and freedom are considered in Islam both a responsibility and prestige, for one is held accountable for them; the Prophet said, “Each one of you is a trustee, and is responsible for who / what is in his trust.”
3. 1. 2. 4 Taking the State of Workers into Consideration
When assigning a task to a person, one must take the person’s state into consideration. Naturally, for a task to be successfully implemented, it has to be assigned to someone who has the qualifications necessary for the implementation of that task. In the Qur’anic story of Prophet Musa, this principle is evident; requesting her father to employ Prophet Musa, Shu’aib’s daughter based her recommendation on the qualities she had seen in Musa, i. e., strength and trustworthiness. As mentioned in the Qur’an, “(26) One of the two women said: O my father! Hire him! For the best (man) that thou canst hire is the strong, the trustworthy. “
Also, it goes without saying that no one is to be assigned something he cannot competently do, or something he is not fit for. In this respect, Allah says, “(233). No one should be charged beyond his capacity…. “ If one is assigned a duty beyond his capacity, he will not be able to do it, or he may do it, but not properly.
3. 1. 3 Directing
Directing involves “communication with, guiding and motivating workers to achieve the defined objectives. In this sense, it is intended to direct, advice and guide them to perform the assigned tasks. Therefore, managerial directing is the executive function of guidance and observation of workers. “ It is the executive function of the plan and is part of the approved organization.
The importance of the directing process for managers and others in positions of responsibility can be realized when the positive results of constructive guidance and advice (planning) materialize. A good manager is always delighted to see an employee making, by Allah’s Grace, a remarkable achievement because of his good leadership, guidance and recommendations.
Islamically speaking, the best guide a manager could follow is Allah’s, as represented by this Qur’anic verse: “(159) It was by the mercy of Allah that thou wast lenient with them (O Muhammad), for if thou hadst been stern and fierce of heart they would have dispersed from round about thee. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them upon the conduct of affairs. And when thou art resolved, then put thy trust in Allah. Lo! Allah loveth those who put their trust (in Him). “ This verse obviously includes a number of demands set by Allah. They exemplify the elements of the directing function, such as communication, leadership and motivation.
The following are some of the demands:
i. the Prophet’s leniency with his companions, which is a blessing from Allah;
ii. No hardness of heart and no fierceness, otherwise they would have left him;
iii. Forgiving them;
iv. Asking forgiveness and praying for them;
v. consulting them on all worldly issues; and
vi. Trusting in Allah once a decision is taken.
The Prophet is instructed to respond to bad behaviour with counter-behaviour, which is better. He is also shown the benefits of the recommended response – he gains the love, loyalty and faithfulness of others. In Al-Mu’minun Sura, Allah says, “(96) Repel evil with that which is better.” In Fussilat Sura, Allah says, “(34) The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel the evil deed with one which is better, then lo! He, between whom and thee there was enmity (will become) as though he was a bosom friend.” 
Similar instructions are given in Surat An-Nahl: “(125) Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation, and reason with them in the better way. Lo! Thy Lord is best aware of him who strayeth from His way, and He is best aware of those who go aright.”  The instructions in this verse are explicit: (a) calling people to the ways of Allah with wisdom and good preaching; and (b) reasoning with them in the best manner. Such instructions are good for all times and places. The Muslim manager can be well guided by them, not only in calling people to Islam, but also in other activities.
Islam emphasizes the principle of motivation. Obviously, there are two things that can motivate man to perform well; one is the desire for reward, and the other is the fear of being questioned or punished. The Islamic approach is to reward good deeds, and to punish bad ones. Allah says, “(7) And whoso doeth good an atom’s weight will see it then, (8) And whoso doeth ill an atom’s weight will see it then.”  Also, mentioned in the Qur’an is this representative statement by Thul-Qarnain: “(87)… As for him who doeth wrong, we shall punish him, and then he will be brought back unto his Lord, who will punish him with awful punishment! (88) But as for him who believeth and doeth right, good will be his reward, and We shall speak unto him a mild command. “
3. 1. 4. Control
The control or follow-up function is an essential element in the management process. It is an integral stage of good management. “It is a follow-up function that aims to ensure that management activities are satisfactorily directed toward the defined goals. It also aims to identify and correct errors and deviations, and identify and bring to justice those who have committed them.” 
In Islam, the control function derives from one’s awareness of being checked by Allah. Allah says, “(1)… Lo! Allah hath been a Watcher over you. “ He also says, “(18) He uttereth no word but there is with him an observer ready.”  The Qur’an has so many Ayahs (verses) that state Allah’s knowledge and observation of all his creatures’ behaviour, even the minutest details of their reflections and promptings. For instance, He says, “(3)… (He is) the Knower of the Unseen. Not an atom’s weight, or less than that or greater, escapeth Him in the heavens or in the earth, but it is in a clear Record, “
The control function should derive also from one’s belief in individual responsibility, trust and justice. As stated in the Qur’an, “(58) Lo! Allah commandeth you that ye restore deposits to their owners, and, if ye judge between mankind, that ye judge justly. …” 
The Qur’an calls on Muslims to develop self-control and self-discipline as it states: “(7) And whoso doeth good an atom’s weight will see it then, (8) And whoso doeth ill an atom’s weight will see it then.”  It is also stated in the Qur’an: “(13) And every man’s augury have We fastened to his own neck, and We shall bring forth for him on the Day of Resurrection a book which he will find wide open. (14) (And it will be said unto him): Read thy book. Thy soul sufficeth as reckoner against thee this day. “
The self-control that Islam calls for protects from deviation on the one hand, and keeps one committed to Shari’ah on the other. However, the human self is capable of mischief, and societies are never void of deviation or abuse of rights. Therefore, control and disciplinary mechanisms are necessary for protection from the spread of corruption and deviation.
“Islam has no hard and fast detailed rules for management control, nor does it have prescribed formats that have to be followed in order to achieve such control. Instead, it has left the matter of exact details and means for the relevant social and administrative circumstances of the Muslim society. “ This statement refers to the existing control structures in today’s administrative entities. Apart from that, Islam has laid down a lot of control and accountability rules concerning preservation of religion, life, honour and wealth. For example, it has established criminal and retribution laws, and, in cases for which no laws exist, it established discretional punishment which is to be decided by the ruler – it can reach the penalty death.
As will be discussed in detail later, the Prophet and his companions applied administrative control.
As for the Qur’an, verses advocate group control as in: “(104) And there may spring from you a nation who invite to goodness, and enjoin right conduct and forbid indecency. Such are they who are successful. “  In the following verse, Allah warns against not inviting to virtue and not forbidding vice: “(78) Those of the children of Israel who went astray were cursed by the tongue of David, and of Jesus, son of Mary. That was because they rebelled and used to transgress. (79) They restrained not one another from the wickedness they did. Verily evil was that they used to do!” 
3. 1. 5 Decision-Making
Good decision-making is crucial for the success of the management process. For decisions to be successful, they must be based on sufficient information. In the Qur’anic story of Prophet Dawood (David), Allah reveals to him his error of judgment when he listened to one of two adversaries in a dispute, but did not listen to the other. This is how the story is narrated in the Qur’an, “(21) And hath the story of the litigants come unto thee? How they climbed the wall into the royal chamber; (22) How they burst in upon David, and he was afraid of them! They said: Be not afraid! (We are) two litigants, one of whom hath wronged the other, therefor judge aright between us; be not unjust; and show us the fair way. (23) Lo! This brother hath ninety and nine ewes while I had one ewe; and he said: Entrust it to me, and he conquered me in speech. (24) (David) said: He hath wronged thee in demanding thine ewe in addition to his ewes, and lo! Many partners oppress one another, save such as believe and do good works, and they are few. And David guessed that we had tried him, and he sought forgiveness of his Lord, and he bowed himself and fell down prostrate and repented. “
Prophet Dawood’s judgment should have been based on the accounts of both adversaries. He should have listened to the accused and weighed his defense. Had he done that, his judgment might have been different.
Also, in another Qur’anic story, Prophet Sulaiman (Solomon) threatened to punish the hoopoe severely because it had been missing. However, because he did not know its whereabouts or the cause of its absence, he promised it the chance to defend itself; perhaps, it had a reasonable excuse. As mentioned in the Qur’an, “(20) And he [Sulaiman] sought among the birds and said: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent? (21) I verily will punish him with hard punishment or I verily will slay him, or he verily shall bring me a plain excuse. “
Allah instructs His Prophet Muhammad to consult his companions on Muslim affairs. Once matters are clarified and an appropriate decision is reached, he is to put his trust in Allah regarding that decision. In Qur’anic terms, the instruction reads: “(159) and consult with them upon the conduct of affairs. And when thou art resolved, then put thy trust in Allah. Lo! Allah loveth those who put their trust (in Him). “
3. 2 Time Management in the Purified Sunnah
Time Management in the Purified Sunnah
Being the head of the newly emerging state in Madinah, the Prophet practised management. His Sunnah, in word and in deed, reflected management functions. In what follows, the management functions will be examined in the light of the Sunnah, with particular reference to time management.
3. 2. 1 Planning
The study of the Prophet’s biography during the Makkan period reveals two types of planning. In modern terms, they are described as long-term or strategic and short-term or executive.  It is during the Madinah period, when the Islamic state was formed under the leadership of the Prophet, that planning clearly took shape. Let us examine, in the following sections, certain planning elements of the Sunnah that are relevant to time management.
3. 2. 1. 1 Goal Definition and Prioritization
Goal definition and establishment of priorities are an important element of management and investment of time. This element is clearly reflected in the advice the Prophet gave Mu’ath Ibn-Jabal before dispatching him to Yemen on a mission to invite Yemenis to Islam. According to Ibn-Abbas’s report, the Prophet said, “You will come to the people of Scripture, and when you reach them, invite them to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is His Apostle. And if they obey you in that, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers to be performed every day and night. And if they obey you in that, then tell them that Allah has enjoined on them Sadaqa (Zakat / obligatory alms) to be taken from the rich amongst them and given to the poor amongst them. And if they obey you in that, then be cautious! Avoid their best properties, and do not invite the curse of the oppressed person, as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah. “
In the above Hadith, the Prophet defined to Mu’ath the objectives of his mission, and established priorities, so that he could do his job efficiently and effectively.
The objectives were logically arranged in terms of importance and priority. As remarked by Al-Khatabi, “The Sadaqah was mentioned after prayers, for Sadaqah is demanded of some, not all, and it is not repeated as much as prayers.” Ibn-Hajar, commenting on Al-Khatabi’s remark, said, “It is a good remark, yet the perfect description is to say: he started with the most important, then the important, but in a gentle, step-by-step approach, for if everything were to be demanded at one time, people might be put off. “ 
3. 2. 1. 2. Thinking and Learning
In one Hadith, the Prophet said, “A (true) believer should not be stung (by an insect) from one hole twice.”  This Hadith implies the importance of thinking, being cautious and learning from past mistakes.
3. 2. 1. 3 Taking Necessary Legitimate Measures
The Prophet encouraged Muslims to take the measures and actions necessary for reaching defined legitimate goals. This is clearly reflected in his saying, “The strong believer is better and more loved by Allah, but there is good in both. Seek what benefits you, ask Allah for help and do not despair. “ The saying implies a call to being strong and to seeking all that is good for one in this life and the Hereafter. It also contains a command to seek Allah’s help and rely on Him on the one hand, and to avoid wasting time on the other.
3. 2. 1. 4 Trusting In Allah’s Will Regarding Results
In his pursuit of his livelihood in this life, doing his work and planning for his professional and private affairs, the Muslim must have firm belief in Divine Destiny; he must also trust in Allah, for He is in control of everything, and all belongs to Him.
The Prophet taught Muslims that achievement of goals depends on two things: taking the necessary actions; and trusting in Allah. In this respect, there is the relevant well-known story of the man who asked the Prophet if he should let the camel loose and put his trust in Allah, or tie it and trust in Allah. The Prophet replied, “Tie it, and put your trust in Allah.”  Thus, the man is instructed to take the measures necessary to prevent the camel from fleeing, i. e. ties it. Having done that he must put his trust in Allah to look after it.
Muslims are forbidden from bemoaning past actions. Instead, they are commanded to accept Allah’s Destiny and Will, as the Prophet said, “If something befalls you, do not say: ‘If I had done such and such a thing,’ but say: ‘Allah has ordained it, His Will is done. ’ Such if-conditionals open the door for Satan’s work. “ Following the Prophet’s teaching in this regard strengthens the Muslim’s resolve to make further attempts towards reaching his goals without despair. Even if the results turn out to be against expectations, the Muslim should seek reward for his effort from Allah. This is how Muslims ought to behave. As described by the Prophet, all the Muslim’s affairs are good. He said, “Wonderful is the believer’s affair; it is all good, and this is typical only of the believer. If something good happens to him, he thanks Allah, so it is good for him. If something bad happens to him, he endures patiently, so it is good for him, too. “ In contrast, the non-believer becomes resentful and frustrated, which can lead to despair and helplessness – may Allah protect us.
3 2. 2 Organizing
Organizing is one of the important functions of management in general, and time management in particular. Let us explore the characteristics of the organizing function in the Sunnah.
3. 2. 2. 1 Hierarchy of Positions
The Prophet’s practice in running the emerging Islamic state reflected a hierarchical system of administration. The Prophet himself was the head, and he appointed regional rulers, army leaders, judges, Zakah collectors and others. This constituted the administrative structure.
3. 2. 2. 2 Delegation
Delegation of responsibilities is an important element of time management. However competent one might be, he cannot assume all responsibilities or achieve all objectives by himself. The Prophet’s behaviour shows his effective use of the principle of delegation toward the accomplishment of his mission, calling people to Islam. This verse reflects his approach: “(108) Say: This is my Way: I call on Allah with sure knowledge, I and whosoever followeth me. …”  His Hadith, “Convey [to people] what you hear from me, even if it is only one Ayah”,  is a representative statement of delegation to all Muslims. Commenting on this Hadith, Annahrawani remarks that it is a very effective means in spreading the Prophet’s entire message, for every one is motivated to communicate the verses he hears, even if they are only a few. 
Another practical example of delegation is the Prophet’s sending of Mus’ab Ibn-Umair to Madinah as a religious instructor, of Ali Ibn-Abi-Taalib to Yemen to invite people to Islam, of Mu’ath Ibn-Jabal to Yemen as a judge and caller to Islam, and of Al-’Ala’ Al-Hadhrami, and later Ibban Ibn-Saeed, to Bahrain as a ruler. The purpose of their missions was to spread and teach Islam, and to establish the Islamic state on firm pillars of faith. No wonder, the early Muslims were able, within a short time, to unite, march beyond the Arabian Peninsula and conquer the strongest kingdoms of their time.
3. 2. 2. 3 Division of Labour and Assignment of Tasks
Indeed, assignment of tasks to experienced and competent people contributes a lot to proper and efficient accomplishment. The Prophet is reported to have warned against assigning tasks to those unfit for them. In fact, he considered that irresponsible and a waste of trust. According to Abu-Hurayrah, “Allah’s Messenger said: ‘Once trust is wasted, then await the Hour (Doomsday). ’ He was asked: ‘O Allah’s Messenger, how can it be wasted?’ He replied: ‘Once responsibilities are assigned to the unqualified, await the Hour’” Therefore, to assign responsibilities to the unfit is considered betrayal of trust. Against that act of betrayal the Prophet issued grave warnings. He said, “If one, in charge of some Muslim affair, appoints a person by way of favouritism, Allah’s curse will fall on him; Allah will never accept from him repentance or ransom till He puts him into Hell.”  He also said, “If one [in charge of Muslim affairs] appoints one [from a group], while there is another [in the group] who can be more pleasing to Allah than the appointed one, he has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers.” 
The Prophet said, “The most compassionate towards my people is Abu-Bakr, the most rigorous regarding Allah’s affair is Umar, the most genuinely modest is Uthman, the one who knows most about obligatory duties is Zayd Ibn-Thabit, the one who knows best how to recite the Qur’an is Ubayy Ibn -Ka’b, and the one who has most knowledge about what is lawful and what is prohibited is Mu’ath Ibn-Jabal. Every people have a trustworthy guardian, and the trustworthy guardian of this people is Abu-Ubayda Ibn-Al-Jarrah. “ This Hadith is a clear indication of the Prophet’s awareness of the importance of specialization. It explains why he points out each one’s distinction.
The assignment of tasks to the qualified is conducive to success and perfection of performance. Islamically, this is strongly recommended for religious as well as worldly duties. Sound execution of work at the start saves effort, time and money from being wasted on correction. Relevant to this is the Prophet’s saying: “Allah – blessed and exalted be He – loves any of you, if he is doing something, to do it properly.”  This is really a valuable guide to the discharge of duties.
3. 2. 2. 4. Taking the State of Workers into Consideration
Allah has created people for living in this world, has allocated them their earnings, and has made them in the service of each other. Islam calls on Muslims to be kind to whoever is in their care. In this respect, the Prophet said, “Never does kindness come into something without turning it into an ornament, nor does it get out of it without turning it into something disgraceful.”  Regarding brothers in one’s care, he said, “Your brothers are your responsibility. Allah has put them in your care. Whoever is in charge of his brother should feed him from what he feeds himself and clothe him from what he clothes himself. Do not assign them tasks they cannot execute; should you do that, you must help them. “ He also said “Treat your brothers well. Seek their help in executing your hard tasks, and help them in executing theirs. “ Thus, there is in these Hadiths a call for kindness, good treatment and care for those of whom we are in charge, and for not demanding of them things too difficult to do without helping them.
3. 2. 3 Directing
Islam considers directing and guidance a very worthy function. The Hadith books have a lot of statements urging guidance in terms of communication, leadership and motivation. The following are some illustrative statements:
“Religion is giving advice.” The Prophet was asked, “For whom?” He replied, “For Allah, His book, His Messenger, and Muslim leaders and commoners.” 
“Whoever sees something reprehensible ought to correct it with his own hands. If he cannot, he should change it by verbal means. If he cannot, he should wish in his own heart to change it, but this is the weakest faith. “
The above Hadiths are great and noble calls for guiding and directing, and they are good for all times and places.
For guidance to be effective, it should be frequently conducted over periods of time. It should not be lengthy, as it may cause boredom. As mentioned by Ibn-Mas’ud, “Allah’s Messenger used to preach to us on different days so that we could avoid boredom.”  
Motivation had a share in the Prophet’s guidance. For instance, he said, “If you want to employ a person, you must inform him of his wages.”  He also said, “Give the employee his wages before his sweat dries.”  In a Holy Hadith, Allah says, “I am the adversary of three people on Doomsday.” One of the three is “a man who employed a person, but did not pay that person his due wages though the latter accomplished his work.” 
3. 2. 4. Control
The Sunnah exhibits two types of control: self-control and administrative control. It is teeming with statements urging the exercise of self-control. For example, the Prophet said, “The wise person is he who controls himself and prepares for the stage after death, and the incompetent person is he who follows his own whims while wishing Allah would save him.” He was also reported by Umar Ibn-Al-Khattab to have said, “Judge yourselves before you are judged (on Doomsday).”  Self-judgment and identification of defects and shortcomings are an important aspect of self-control, and an important step toward building a sound society. Maymoon Ibn-Mahran  said, “One can never be pious unless he judges himself the way he judges his partner about the source of his food and clothing.” 
Of the general rules set by the Prophet in this regard are:
“Each one of you is a trustee and is responsible for who/what is in his trust.” 
“If any of you whom we employ [to run something] keeps for himself something in his care – be it a needle or above [in value] – he will come on Doomsday carrying that thing.” 
In addition to self-control, there is administrative control. Ibn-Allutbiyyah’s story is a good example of administrative accountability. Having collected Zakat, he came to the Prophet and said, “This (amount) is for you, and this was given to me as a present.” The Prophet said, “Why didn’t he stay at his father’s and mother’s house to see whether he will be given gifts or not? By Him in Whose Hand my life is, whoever takes anything illegally will be carrying it over his neck the Day of Resurrection by carrying it over his neck: if it is a camel, it will be grunting; if it is a cow, it will be mooing; and if it is a sheep it will be bleating!” The Prophet then raised both his hands so high that the whiteness of his armpits could be seen, and he said: “No doubt! Haven’t I conveyed Allah’s Message? “And he repeated it three times”. 
The Prophet also called for administrative control and for pointing out mistakes made by those in charge. For example, he said, “Convey to me the needs [problems] of those who cannot convey them. If one conveys the needs of those who cannot convey them, may Allah hold his feet firm on the Path on the Day when feet slip. “
The above Hadith seems to have been applied by the Prophet in removing Al-’Ala’ Ibn-Al-Hadhrami from office in Bahrain. When the delegation of the Abdul-Qais tribe complained to the Prophet, he appointed Abban Ibn-Saeed in his place. The Prophet advised him: “Be good to Abdul-Qais. Be generous to their masters. “
3. 2. 5 Decision-Making
Hesitation in decision making for fear of failure wastes time and effort. When taking a decision, a firm manager bases it on available indicators and principles. Such a manager is capable of correcting what may disturb the effectiveness of his organization’s activities or its production units. This does not imply haste, for the decisions have to be made on the basis of careful study, analysis and examination of well-prepared alternatives in terms of statistics, predictions and other requirements of decision making.
In fact, deliberateness is recommended, yet it should not turn into a delaying tactic damaging the organization’s interests. The Prophet praised Ashj Abdul-Qais saying, “There are two traits in your character which are loved by Allah and His Messenger: gentleness and deliberateness.” 
The successful administrator is the one who makes good use of all available resources, but is not self-conceited, or scornful of other’s views. He should be guided by the Prophet’s saying: “Wisdom is what the believer seeks. Wherever he finds it, he is more worthy of it.”  Ibn-Alqayyim defines wisdom as “doing what should be done the way it should be done when it should be done.” 
 Al-Bura’i, M. Abdullah: Principles of Management and Leadership in Islam, op. cit., p. 29.
البرعي، محمد عبد الله، مبادئ الإدارة والقيادة في الإسلام، مطابع الحميضي، الرياض، ط2، 1416هـ – 1996م، ص 29.
 Surat Yusuf, Ayahs 43-49 سورة يوسف الآيات [43-49]
 Al-Mutairi, H. Ibn-Matir: Islamic Administration: Thought and Practice, op. cit., p. 82.
المطيـري، حزام بن ماطر بن عويض، الإدارة الإسـلامية الـمنهج والممارسة، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1417هـ، ص 82 بتصرّف
 Al-Banna, Firnas Abdulbasit: A Study in the field of Islamic Administration and the Discipline of Public Administration, 1405H. , p. 85.
البنا، فرناس عبد الباسط، التخطيط: دراسة في مجال الإدارة الإسلامية وعلم الإدارة العامة، دن، دم، ط1، 1405هـ، ص85.
 Al-Mutairi, H. Ibn-Matir: Islamic Administration: Thought and Practice, op. cit., p. 76.
المطيري، حزام بن ماطر بن عويض، الإدارة الإسلامية المنهج والممارسة، مرجع سابق، ص 76.
 Surat Al-Mulk, Ayah 22 سورة الملك الآية 
 Surat Al-Muddaththir, Ayahs 1-2 سورة المدثر الآيات [1-2]
 Surat As-Shu’ara’, Ayah 214 سورة الشعراء الآية 
 Surat At-Tahreem, Ayah 6 سورة التحريم الآية 
 Surat Al-Mulk, Ayah 15 سورة الملك الآية 
 Surat Ibrahim, Ayahs 32-34 سورة إبراهيم الآيات [32-34]
 Surat Al-Anfal, Ayah 60 سورة الأنفال الآية 
 Surat Al-Kahf, Ayahs 23-24 سورة الكهف الآيات [23 – 24]
 Al-Mazjaji, A. Dawud: “Administrative Organization in Islam: Concept and Characteristics”, King Saud University Journal, Vol. 3, Administrative Science (1), 1991, p. 39.
المزجاجي، أحمد داود، التنظيم الإداري في الإسلام: مفهومه وخصائصه، مجلة جامعة الملك سعود، مجلد (3)، العلوم الإدارية (1)، ص ص (35-75)، 1411هـ – 1991م، ص 39.
 Surat Azzukhruf, Ayah 32 سورة الزخرف الآية 
 Al-Qurtubi, M. Ibn-Ahmad: A Comprehensive Book of Qur’anic Rulings, op. cit. , Vol. 16, p. 83.
انظر: القرطبي، محمد بن أحمد، الجامع لأحكام القرآن، تحقيق عبد الرزاق المهدي ، دار الكتاب العربي ، بيروت ، ط3 ، 1421هـ – 2000م ، [ 1 – 20 ] ، ج 16 ص 83.
 Ibn-Khamees, Abdullah: Ash-Shawarid, in Arabic, Vol. 2, 1406 H. , p. 232.
ابن خميس، عبد الله محمد، الشوارد، مطابع الفرزدق، الرياض، ط2، 1406هـ، ج 2 ص 232.
 Surat An-Nisa’, Ayah 59 سورة النساء الآية 
 Surat Yusuf, Ayah 55 سورة يوسف الآية 
 Ali, M. Mohamed: Islamic Methods of Administration, 1980, p. 56.
علي، مراد محمد، الأساليب الإدارية في الإسلام، دار الاعتصام، القاهرة، 1980م، ص56.
 Surat At-Tawbah, Ayah 122 سورة التوبة الآية 
 Ibn-Katheer, Abul-Fida: Explanation of the Glorious Qur’an, op. cit, Vol. 11, p. 415.
انظر: ابن كثير، أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن كثير القرشي [ت 774هـ]، تفسير القرآن العظيم، دار المعرفة، بيروت، ط1، 1406هـ ، ج11 ص 415.
 Surat Al-Ahzab, Ayah 4 سورة الأحزاب الآية 
 Assaabuni, M. A. and Ridha, S. A.: Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, Vol. 2, Alam Al-Kutub, 1985, p. 272.
انظر: الصابوني، محمد علي ، ورضا، صالح أحمد، مختصر تفسير الطبري، عالم الكتب، ط1، 1415هـ-1985م ، ج2 ص 272.
 Surat Taha, Ayahs 29-34 سورة طه الآيات [29 – 34]
 Ibn-Katheer, Abul-Fida: Explanation of the Glorious Qur’an, op. cit, Vol. 3, pp. 154-155.
انظر: ابن كثير، أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن كثير، تفسير القرآن العظيم، مرجع سابق، ج3 ص 154 – 155.
 Surat Yusuf, Ayah 56 سورة يوسف الآية 
 Assaabuni, M. A. and Ridha, S. A.: Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, op. cit. , Vol. 1, p. 569.
الصابوني، محمد علي ، ورضا، صالح أحمد، مختصر تفسير الطبري، مرجع سابق، ج1 ص 569.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, Bait Al-Afkaar Addawliyyah, Book 11, Chapter 11, Hadith No. 893, p. 179. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj: Sahih Muslim, Cairo, Dar Ihyaa’ Al-Kutub Al’arabiyyah, Book No. 33, Chapter 5, Hadith No. 1829, Vol. 3, p. 1459.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل [194-256هـ]، صحيح البخاري، اعتنى به أبو صهيب الكرمي، بيت الأفكار الدولية،1419هـ-1998م، كتاب(11)، باب (11)، رقم الحديث(893)، ص 179. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري [206-261هـ]، صحيح مسلم، تحقيق محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي، دار إحياء الكتب العربية، القاهرة، دت، كتاب (33)، باب (5)، رقم الحديث (1829)، ج3 ص 1459.
 Surat Al-Qassas, Ayah 26 سورة القصص الآية 
 Surat Al-Baqara, Ayah 233 سورة البقرة الآية 
 Al-Bura’i, M. Abdullah & Abdeeen, A. Hamdi: Management in Islamic Heritage, in Arabic, 1987, Vol. 1, p. 60.
البرعي، محمد عبد الله، وعابدين، عدنان حمدي، الإدارة في التراث الإسلامي، مرجع سابق، ج1 ص60 بتصرّف.
 Surat Ala-Imran, Ayah 159 سورة آل عمران الآية 
 Surat Al-Mu’minun, Ayah 96 سورة المؤمنون الآية 
 Surat Fussilat, Ayah 34 سورة فصلت الآية 
 Surat An-Nahl, Ayah 125 سورة النحل الآية 
 Surat Az-Zalzalah, Ayahs 7-8 سورة الزلزلة الآيات [7-8]
 Surat Al-Kahf, Ayahs 87-88 سورة الكهف الآيات [87-88]
 Abu-Sin, A. Ibrahim: Management in Islam, 1417 H. , p. 146.
أبو سن، أحمد إبراهيم، الإدارة في الإسلام، دار الخريجي، الرياض، ط6، 1417هـ، ص 146.
 Surat An-Nisa’, Ayah 1 سورة النساء الآية 
 Surat Qaaf, Ayah 18 سورة ق الآية 
 Surat Saba’, Ayah 3 سورة سبأ الآية 
 Surat An-Nisa’, Ayah 58 سورة النساء الآية 
 Surat Az-Zalzalah, Ayah 7-8 سورة الزلزلة الآيات [7-8]
 Surat Al-Isra’, Ayahs 13-14 سورة الإسراء الآيات [13-14]
 Abu-Sin, A. Ibrahim: Management in Islam, op. cit, p. 147.
أبو سن، أحمد إبراهيم، الإدارة في الإسلام، مرجع سابق، ص 147.
 Surat Ala-Imran, Ayah 104 سورة آل عمران الآية 
 Surat Al-Maedah, Ayahs 78-79 سورة المائدة الآيات [78-79]
 Surat Saad, Ayahs 21-24 سورة ص الآيات [ 21 – 24 ]
 Surat An-Naml, Ayahs 20-21 سورة النمل الآيات [20-21]
 Surat Ala-Imran, Ayah 159 سورة آل عمران الآية 
 Al-Banna, Firnas Abdul-Basit: Planning, A Study in the Field of Islamic Administration, and the Discipline of Public Administration, op. cit. , p. 111.
انظر: البنا، فرناس عبد الباسط، التخطيط: دراسة في مجال الإدارة الإسلامية وعلم الإدارة العامة، مرجع سابق، ص 111.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 24, Chapter 63, Hadith No. 1496, p. 291. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj: Sahih Muslim, op. cit. , Book No. 1, Chapter 7, Hadith No. 19, Vol. 1, p. 50.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (24)، باب(63)، رقم الحديث (1496)، ص 291. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (1)، باب (7)، رقم الحديث (19)، ج1 ص 50.
 Ibn-Hajar, A. A. Al-Asqalani: Fat-hulbari Fi Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari, in Arabic, investigated by F. Abdulbaqi and M. Al-Khateeb, Book No. 24, Chapter 63, explanation of Hadith No. 1496, Vol. 3, p. 421.
ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني، فتح الباري شرح صحيح البخاري، تحقيق محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي ومحب الدين الخطيب، دار المعرفة، بيروت، 1379هـ، كتاب (24)، باب (63)، شرح الحديث ذي الرقم (1496)، ج3 ص 421.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 78, Chapter 83, Hadith No. 6133, p. 1182. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj: Sahih Muslim, op. cit. , Book No. 53, Chapter 12, Hadith No. 2998, Vol. 4, p. 2295.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (78)، باب(83)، رقم الحديث (6133)، ص1182. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (53)، باب (12)، رقم الحديث(2998)، ج4 ص 2295.
 Al-Qushairi, Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj: Sahih Muslim, op. cit. , Book No. 46, Chapter 8, Hadith No. 2664, Vol. 4, p. 2052.
القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (46)، باب (8)، رقم الحديث (2664)، ج4 ص 2052.
 Ibn-Bilban, Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, investigated by Shu’aib Al-Arna’ut, 1997, Vol. 2, Hadith No. 731, p. 510.
ابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي [ت739هـ]، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1418هـ-1997م، [1-18]، رقم الحديث (731)، ج2 ص 510.
 Al-Qushairi, Muslim Ibn Al-Hajjaj: Sahih Muslim, op. cit. , Book No. 46, Chapter 8, Hadith No. 2664, Vol. 4, p. 2052.
القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (46)، باب (8)، رقم الحديث (2664)، ج4 ص 2052.
 Ibid. , Book 53, Chapter 13, Hadith No. 2999. Vol. 4, p. 2295.
المرجع نفسه ، كتاب (53)، باب (13)، رقم الحديث (2999)، ج4 ص 2295.
 Suratt Yusuf, Ayah 108 سورة يوسف الآية 108
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 60, Chapter 50, Hadith No. 3461, p. 666.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (60)، باب(50)، رقم الحديث (3461)، ص 666.
 Annahrawani was considered the most knowledgeable of his time as an authority on Fiqh, grammar and language. See: Shamsuddeen Aththahabi’s Biographies of Noble Scholars, investigated by Shu’aib Al-Arna’ut and others, Vol. 16, p. 544.
المعافى بن زكريا بن يحيى بن حميد الحافظ العلاّمة القاضي ذو الفنون أبو الفرج النهرواني، كان أعلم الناس في وقته بالفقه والنحو واللغة، [ت390هـ ]. انظر: (الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ت748هـ]، سير أعلام النبلاء، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط وآخرون، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط6، 1409هـ، [1-23]، ج16 ص544).
 Ibn-Hajar, A. A. Al-Asqalani: Fat-hulbari Fi Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book No. 60, Chapter 50, Hadith No. 3461, Vol. 11, p. 575.
ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني، فتح الباري شرح صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (60)، باب (50)، شرح الحديث ذي الرقم (3461)، ج6 ص 575.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 81, Chapter 35, Hadith No. 6469, p. 1245
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب(81)، باب (35)، رقم الحديث(6496)، ص 1245.
 Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak, op. cit. , Book No. 32, Vol. 4, p. 104, Hadith No. 7024. & Ibn Hanbal: Ahmad Ibn Hanbal Ashshibani: Musnad Al-Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Bait Al-Afkaar Addawliyyah, 1998, Hadith No. 21, p. 39.
الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1411هـ – 1990م، [1-4] ، كتاب (32)، رقم الحديث (7024)، ج4 ، ص 104، وقال: هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه، وحذفه الذهبي من التلخيص لأن فيه حسين بن قيس وهوضعيف. وابن حنبل، أحمد بن حنبل الشيباني، مسند الإمام أحمد بن حنبل [164 – 241 هـ]، بيت الأفكار الدولية، 1419هـ – 1998م، رقم الحديث (21)، ص 39.
 Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak, ibid, Book 32, Hadith No. 7023, Vol. 4, p. 105.
الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين، كتاب (32)، رقم الحديث (7023)، ج4 ص 105، وقال: هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه، وخالفه الذهبي.
 Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, in Arabic, Book No. 49, Chapter 33, Hadith No. 3791, Vol. 5, p. 665. & Ibn-Bilban, Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, op. cit. , Vol. 16, p. 74, Hadith No. 7131.
الترمذي ، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي ، تحقيق أحمد محمد شاكر، مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى الحلبي، ط2، 1398هـ ، كتاب (49) ، باب ( 33 ) ، رقم الحديث (3791) ، ج5 ص 665، وقال هذا حديث حسن صحيح. وابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، مرجع سابق، رقم الحديث (7131)، ج16 ص 74.
 Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein: Branches of Faith, op. cit. , Vol. 4, Chapter 35, Hadith No. 776, p. 334. & Al-Musili, Abu-Ya’la: Musnad Abu-Y’ala Al-Musili, 1st. ed. , Vol. 7, investigated by H. Salim Assad, 1984, Hadith No. 4386, p. 349
البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين [384-458هـ]، شعب الإيمان ، تحقيق محمد السعيد بسيوني زغلول، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ [1-8] ، الباب(35)، رقم الحديث (5312)، ج4 ص334. الموصلي، أبو يعلى أحمد بن علي بن المثنى التميمي [210-307هـ]، مسند أبي يعلى الموصلي، تحقيق حسين سليم أسد، دار المأمون للتراث، دمشق، ط1، 1404هـ- 1984م، [1-13]، رقم الحديث(4386)، ج7 ص349.
 Ibn-Bilban, Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, , Vol. 2, p. 311, Hadith No. 550. & Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman: Sunan Abi-Dawud, op. cit. , Vol. 2, Book 35, Chapter 10, Hadith No. 4808, p. 670.
ابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، مرجع سابق، رقم الحديث (550)، ج2 ص 311. وأبو داود، سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني ، سنن أبي داود، فهرسة كمال يوسف الحوت، دار الجنان، 1409هـ ، كتاب(35)، باب (10)، رقم الحديث (4808)، ج2 ص 670.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit, Book 49, Chapter 15, Hadith No. 2545, p. 481. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, Vol. 3, Book 27, Chapter 10, p. 1282, Hadith No. 1661.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (49)، باب (15)، رقم الحديث (2545)، ص 481. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح الإمام مسلم، كتاب (27)، باب (10)، رقم الحديث (1661)، ج3 ص 1282.
 Al-Musili, Abu-Ya’la: Musnad Abu-Y’ala Al-Musili, investigated by H. Salim Assad, 1984, Hadith No. 920, Hadith No. 920, p. 221. & Al-Bukhari, M. Ibn-Ismaeel: Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Arabic, investigated by Sameer A. Azzuhairi, Maktabat Al-Ma’arif, Riyadh, 1419 H. (1998), Vol. 1, Hadith No. 190, p. 101.
الموصلي، أبو يعلى أحمد بن علي بن المثنى التميمي، مسند أبي يعلى الموصلي، مرجع سابق ، رقم الحديث (920)، ج2 ص221. والبخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل [194-256هـ]، ، الأدب المفرد، تحقيق سمير بن أمين الزهيري، مكتبة المعارف ، الرياض، 1419هـ – 1998م, [1 -2]، رقم الحديث (190), ج1 ص 101. وقال: ضعيف.
 Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Book 23, Chapter 1, p. 74, Hadith No. 55.
القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (1)، باب (23)، رقم الحديث (55)، ج1 ص 74.
 Ibid. , Book 1, Chapter 20, Hadith No. 49, Vol. 1, p. 69.
المرجع نفسه، كتاب (1)، باب (20)، رقم الحديث (49)، ج1 ص 69.
 Al-Fairuz-Abadi, Majduddin Mohamed Ibn Ya’qub: Al-Qamus Al-Muhit, in Arabic, Beirut, Arrisalah Institution, 2nd. Ed. , 1987, Chapter Laam, Section Kha’, p. 1287.
انظر: الفيروز أبادي، مجد الدين محمد بن يعقوب، القاموس المحيط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط2، 1407هـ – 1987م، باب اللام، فصل الخاء، ص 1287.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 3, Chapter 11, Hadith No. 68, p. 481.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (3)، باب (11)، رقم الحديث (68)، ص481
 Al-Asbahani, Abu-Naeem: Musnad Al-Imam Abu-Haneefah (Abu-Haneefah’s Hadith Collection), investigated by N. M. Al-Faryabi, 1415, p. 89. & Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein: Assunan-ul-Kubra (Major Traditions), 1st. ed. , 1356H. , Dar A-Ma’rifah, Beirut, Vol. 6, p. 120.
الأصبهاني، أبو نعيم أحمد بن عبد الله [ت430هـ]، مسند الإمام أبي حنيفة، تحقيق نظر محمد الفاريابي، مكتبة الكوثر، الرياض، ط1، 1415هـ، ص89. والبيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين بن علي [458 هـ]، السنن الكبرى، دار المعرفة، بيروت، ط1 ، 1356هـ، ج6 ص 120.
 Al-Musili, Abu-Ya’la: Musnad Abu-Y’ala Al-Musili, op. cit. , Vol. 12, Hadith No. 6682, pp. 34-35. & Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein: Assunan-ul-Kubra (Major Traditions), 1st. ed. , op. cit. , Vol. 6, p. 120.
الموصلي، أبو يعلى أحمد بن علي بن المثنى التميمي، مسند أبي يعلى الموصلي، مرجع سابق، رقم الحديث (6682)، ج12 ص 34-35. والبيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين بن علي، السنن الكبرى، مرجع سابق، ج6 ص 120.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 37, Chapter 10, Hadith No. 2270, p. 423.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (37)، باب (10)، رقم الحديث (2270)، ص 423.
 Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, op. cit, Book No. 38, Chapter 25, Hadith No. 2459, Vol. 4, p. 638. & Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak, op. cit. , Book No. 44, Vol. 1, p. 125. Hadith No. 191.
الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي، مرجع سابق، كتاب (38)، باب (25)، رقم الحديث (2459)، ج4 ص 638، وحسنه. و الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين، مرجع سابق، كتاب(44)، رقم الحديث (191)، ج1 ص 125، وقال: هذا حديث صحيح على شرط البخاري ولم يخرّجاه. وخالفه الذهبي.
 Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, op. , cit. , Book No. 38, Chapter 25, Vol. 4, p. 638.
الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي، مرجع سابق، كتاب (38)، باب (25)، ج 4 ص638.
 Maymoon Ibn-Mahran A. Abu-Ayyub, a respected scholar, was appointed a ruler of Al-Jazeerah by Umar Ibn-Abdul-Aziz – he died in 117H. See: Ibn-Hajar Al-Asqalani’s Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb (Simplifying Discipline), in Arabic, investigated by Mohamed Awwamah, Vol. 1, P. 556.
ميمون بن مهران الجزري أبو أيوب ثقة فقيه ولي الجزيرة لعمر بن عبد العزيز، [ت 117هـ]. انظر: (ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني [773 – 852هـ]، تقريب التهذيب، عناية عادل مرشد، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط1، 1416هـ – 1996م، رقم الترجمة (7049)، ص 88.
 Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, op. , cit. , Book No. 38, Chapter 25, Vol. 4, p. 638.
الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي، مرجع سابق، كتاب (38)، باب(25)، ج4 ص638، وحسنه.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit, Book 11, Chapter 11, Hadith No. 893, p. 179 & Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, Vol. 3, Book 33, Chapter 5, p. 1459, Hadith No. 1829.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب(11)، باب (11)، رقم الحديث(893)، ص 179. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، كتاب (33)، باب (5)، رقم الحديث (1829)، ج3 ص 1459.
 Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, Vol. 3, Book 33, Chapter 7, p. 1465, Hadith No. 1833.
القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (33)، باب (7)، رقم الحديث (1833)، ج3 ص 1465.
 Al-Bukhari, Mohamed Ibn Ismaeel: Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 51, Chapter 17, Hadith No. 2597, p. 491.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (51)، باب (17)، رقم الحديث (2597)، ص 491.
 Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein: Branches of Faith, 2nd. ed. , investigated by M. S. B. Zaghlul, Vol. 2, Chapter 14, Hadith No. 1430, p. 156. & Ibn-Taymiyah: Assiyasah ash-Shar’iyyah (Legal Policy), in Arabic, 1992, p. 34.
البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين، شعب الإيمان، مرجع سابق ، باب (14)، رقم الحديث (1430)، ج2 ص 156. وابن تيميّة، أحمد بن عبد الحليم [661-728هـ]، السياسة الشرعية، دار المسلم، الرياض، 1412هـ-1992م، ص34.
 Ibn-Saad, M. S. M. Al-Hashimi: At-Tabqat Al-Kubra (The Greater Classes), in Arabic, investigated by M. A. Ata, 1997, Vol. 4, pp. 266-267.
ابن سعد، محمد بن سعد بن منيع الهاشمي، الطبقات الكبرى، تحقيق محمد عبد القادر عطا،دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط2، 1418هـ -1997م، [1-8]، ج 4 ص 266-267.
 Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 1, Book 1, Chapter 6, p. 48, Hadith No. 17.
القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (1)، باب (6)، رقم الحديث (17)، ج1 ص48.
 Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, op. , cit. , Book No. 42, Chapter 19, Hadith No. 2687, Vol. 5, p. 51. & Ibn-Majah, Abu-Abdullah Al-Qazwini: Sunnan Ibn-Majah, investigated by M. F. Abdul-Baqi, Dar Arrayan Litturath, Book 37, Chapter 15, Hadith No. 4169, Vol. 2, p. 1395.
الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي، مرجع سابق، كتاب (42)، باب (19) رقم الحديث (2687)، ج5 ص 51، وقال: هذا حديث غريب لا نعرفه إلا من هذا الوجه. وابن ماجه، أبو عبد الله محمد بن يزيد القزويني [207-275هـ]، سنن ابن ماجه، تحقيق محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي، دار الريان للتراث، دم، دت، كتاب (37)، باب (15)، رقم الحديث (4169)، ج2 ص 1395.
 Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Tahtheeb Madarij Assaliheen, investigated by Abdul-Mun’im Salih Al-‘Ali, Beirut, Muassat Arrisalah, 1989, Vol. 2, p. 776.
ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيم الجوزية [691 – 751هـ]، تهذيب مدارج السالكين، هذبه عبد المنعم صالح العلي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1409هـ – 1989م، ج2 ص 776.
Duties of the Muslim Manager Regarding Time
Since organizations differ in the nature of work and style of management, it is less likely to have a general rule according to which the manager can allocate his time. In general, organizations can be described as systems for the required human effort that is scheduled in the light of their needs and goals. With respect to time management, there are a number of relevant facts: there are only 24 hours in the day; available time needs to be so properly managed and so well invested that the organization’s goals can be reached. Therefore, time-wasters have to be identified, and there has to be full awareness of what is to be done. By defining the Muslim manager’s responsibilities for time, maximum benefit can be gained from available time. In this chapter, these responsibilities will be dealt with under two headings:
4.1 Time Wasters
4.2 The Muslim’s Duty Regarding Time
This section attempts to answer these questions:
What is meant by time-wasters? In other words: What causes time wasting?
What are the positive measures for combating time wasters?
How can time wasters be controlled?
4.1.1 Major Time-wasters
Currently, time-wasters represent a basic problem facing the management systems of all organizations by obstructing the achievement of defined objectives, which require effective utilization of time.
Time-wasters may seem too simple an issue to deal with, yet thorough investigation of the state of organizations reveals the difficulties and drawbacks resulting from time wasting. A comprehensive view of time-wasters demands consideration of the following points: 
 Any unsuitable utilization of one’s time is a waste of time. For instance, if the manager spends his time on something less important while he could spend it on something more important – importance measured by contribution to objective achievement – he has wasted his time.
 On the one hand, time-wasters can be ignored. On the other hand, they can be controlled and replaced by productive activities. Therefore, the responsibility for that lies with the individual, for the key to time management is the management of self. Unawareness of the problem does not mean it does not exist, and bad management of time renders the manager ineffective.
“Time-wasters can be put into two categories: external and internal. External time-wasters come from people, such as family and clients, or from things, as in the case of reading and writing letters, memos and reports. Internal time-wasters come from within and are difficult to eliminate. They include procrastination, meetings, inadequate planning, and the inability to say ‘No’, etc.”
This study adopts Mackenzie’s  definition of time-wasters; they embody “anything that prevents the manager from achieving objectives in the most effective way possible.” Mackenzie identifies 35 time-wasters across the major administrative activities, as shown in the following chart:
Chart 2: Mackenzie’s Time Trap
Source: Salama’s Time Management:
A Developed Approach for Success, page 47.
Absence of objectives
Absence of priorities
Leaving an activity unfinished
Urgent administrative problems
No set deadlines
Trying to achieve too much at one time
Absence of personal organizing
Performing a task more than once
Undefined authority and responsibilities
More than one superior for one employee
Untrained or unsuitable employees
Over-qualification or Under-qualification
Desire to perform task alone
Involvement with routine work
Lack of co-ordination
Inability to settle disputes
Unawareness of change
Repeated interruption, unexpected visits and calls
Absence of control standards
The manager’s inability to say “No”
Unclear horizontal-vertical communication
Desire for entertainment and chatting
Lack of facts
Total of Time-Wasters: 35
Review of relevant literature reveals that several studies have investigated the conditions that waste managers’ time. In Management and Time Management (1978), on time-wasters, Harrison mentioned 25 factors responsible for wasting the manager’s time. Of those wasters are: “bad supervision, no delegation of authority, lengthy meetings, unexpected visits, excessive phone calls, reading newspapers and magazines and attending to less important activities.”
According to Drucker, time wasting conditions are: “Meetings beyond reasonable limits; inadequate information and communication systems; unnecessary phone calls; reading newspapers and magazines; over-employment; bad management and inefficient organization; unexpected visits, hesitation in decision-making, fear of making mistakes, unsound delegation; wrong order of priorities, interruption during work; social interaction and entertainment within the organization; starting to implement tasks without prior thinking and planning, moving to a new task before accomplishing a present one; obsession with less important routine matters.”
“Within this framework, Drucker conducted an experiment on four groups of managers in order to find out the major causes of time wasting. He asked each group to record what they believed to be the wasters of time at work. Then, he showed them a film called ‘Time Management’. The film was about a manager who did not manage his time properly. After the film, he asked the groups to record what they believed to be the causes of time wasting at work. Drucker examined the causes put forward by each group before and after watching the film. There was a clear difference between what the first group suggested before and after watching the film. Whereas the earlier suggestions focused on external causes of time wasting, the latter ones focused on internal causes, arising from the individual.
The experiment was also conducted on another group of top-level managers. It reached the following results:
As maintained by the top-level managers before watching the film, Time Management, time-wasters were: inadequate information; employees’ problems; lack of delegation; phone calls and personal interruptions; meetings; no defined priorities; management by crisis; personal concern with others; personal activities; poor communication system; mistakes.
After they watched the film, the top-level managers attributed time wasting to: trying to do too many things at one time; unrealistic estimation of time, procrastination; poor organization; bad listening; insisting on doing things personally; inability to say ‘No’; not letting others implement some tasks; delegating responsibilities without authority; hasty decisions; personal activities. 
When asked in an interview about the most important wasters of managers’ time, Mackenzie mentioned them in the order of importance: “interruption by phone calls; repeated re-scheduling of tasks; clerical work; offices crowded with paper; unexpected visitors; meetings; incomplete information; crises; exhaustion; attempting to do too much at one time; reading; crises within one team; excessive involvement with work.”
One of the field studies done in the Arab World is that by ’Usfure in Saudi Arabia. It discusses, among other things, time-wasters in government agencies. It identifies the following as the most important time-wasters : late arrival at work in the morning; private phone calls; reading work-related magazines; drinking tea and coffee; going to hospital; leaving work early; others.
In his study “Productivity in the Public Sector”, Al-Ghaith listed ten causes identified by a group of managers working in Saudi Arabia as the most important time-wasters: “unqualified employees; unexpected visits; red tape; work interruption; misplacement of things, such as files, etc.; non-compliance with official working hours; too many telephone calls; lack of proper delegation of authority; reliance on memory rather than on planning and follow-up; poor organization of work.”
4.1.2 Time-Wasters: Analysis and Solutions
Analysis of time-wasters and defining positive counter-measures require commitment on the part of the manager. They also require genuine knowledge of himself, his nature and his job as well as the ability and determination to proceed towards effective time management.
Since the human element is the most important production resource, successful investment of human effort is the real key to the achievement of defined objectives. Also, organizing the relationship between personnel and time is one of the most important functions of enlightened management, seeking distinction of performance. This requires the formulation of comprehensive systems for defining duties, tasks and communication so as to avoid the afore-mentioned time-wasters.
This section explores possible solutions for time-wasters so that time can be saved and effectively invested. Analysis of time-wasters demands: “identification of their sources in order to formulate appropriate solutions for eliminating wasters of managers’ time.”
Through conducting observations and studies on the symptoms of time wasting during task performance, a number of direct and indirect time-wasters can be identified. Then, appropriate measures can be taken to combat those wasters and realize effective management.
Evidently, all managers encounter time management problems, which vary in seriousness and urgency, from organization to organization and from society to society. However, all those problems have to be analysed, time wasters have to be identified, and measures for combating and controlling them taken.
In what follows are presented five basic steps comprising the approach suggested for combating time-wasters  :
1- Collection of Data
Understanding time-wasters requires collection of relevant data. Recognizing that visitors represent a problem is not enough. Their number has to be identified, and so do the reasons and conditions of the visits.
2- Identification of Possible Causes
Probable causes of identified time-wasters have to be defined. In this respect relevant questions are to be asked, such as: Is it the manager himself? Is it other personnel? Is it the environment? If it is the manager, how is he wasting the workers’ time and his? Is it, for example, through habits? Is it his behaviour and style of management?
3- Suggesting Possible Solutions
This step requires dealing with each time-waster on its own and formulating appropriate solutions for it. The manager can seek help from his colleagues and subordinates to create solutions. One way of suggesting solutions is by holding brain-storming  sessions. Such solutions can be developed into applicable ones suitable for combating time-wasters.
4- Selection of a Potential Solution
In this step, the suggested solutions are evaluated in order to select the best and most effective one.
5- Implementation of the Selected Solution
Once selected, the potential solution is to be implemented, and evaluation of implementation conducted in order to assess how suitable and effective it is. If evaluation reveals persistence of identified problem, the basic steps have to be repeated.
Thus, thorough analysis of the manager’s activities represents the best starting point in tackling time-wasters. Also, accurate definition of objectives is crucial for combating wasters. It is in terms of objectives that activities are investigated to decide whether time is being wasted.
The whole process does not aim at eliminating the activities that waste the manager’s time, but to control them. The manager’s time, according to theoretical and field studies, generally has a variety of daily activities, planned and unplanned, such as interviews, phone calls, meetings, verbal and non-verbal communication, besides the usual office work. If those activities are not done in a proper and balanced way by means of good planning and execution, they become time-wasters representing ineffective time management.
However, some researchers insist on specific activities, without undermining others, as potential sources of time wasting for a number of reasons, the most important of which are :
1- The manager spends a large amount of time on those activities.
2- The time allocated to each of them is generally misused, so it elapses with hardly any productivity.
3- Those activities are done by so many managers at all levels.
4- They are of a comprehensive nature and include secondary activities. For example, a meeting can be used for taking a decision, and the phone for co-ordination purposes.
5- Time mismanagement has economic implications. It leads to rise of production costs. Therefore, the more time is allocated to those activities, the higher the costs.
The manager can control time-wasters through the following:
 Dividing time into: (a) controllable time, which the manager can control; (b) uncontrollable time, which is for reacting to immediate events and demands. The effective manager should be able to increase the portion of controllable time, which, according to some expert estimates, can reach 75%. This can be achieved by simplifying tasks. For example, a specific time can be allocated for daily performance of a certain task, such as checking correspondence, receiving phone calls, immediate replies to correspondence. Also, a specific period of time could be allocated to visits, and so on and so forth.
 Concentration, as represented by clear definition of work in terms of aims, strategies so that the type of required information can be defined, and priorities established. It is recommended that one task be done at a time. In the establishment of priorities, there three steps that have to be considered: arranging subjects in terms of arrival (early/late); degree of urgency (sooner/later); the degree of the subject’s contribution to the achieving of the organization’s goals.
In general, time has to be considered as investment. At the personal level and the level of realizing the aims of business, the best results should be achieved.  Among the things effective management of time depends on is the manager’s ability to take positive decisions for combating time-wasters. Therefore, unless time planning is accompanied by taking positive decisions to prevent wastage, it becomes meaningless. 
The Muslim’s Duty Regarding Time
Islam encourages Muslims to care for time, to utilize it and not to waste it. Besides, it holds them responsible for their time. The Righteous Salaf were aware of that responsibility, so they acted accordingly. Describing their care for time, Hassan Al-Basry said, “I saw those people and how they were more careful about their time than about their Dirhams and Dinars [i. e. their money].”
An important requirement for a Muslim’s life is to be careful about time, to invest it wisely and to benefit from it. In this regard, Ibn-ul-Qayyim says, “The highest, most worthy and most useful of reflection is what is intended for Allah and the Hereafter. There are various forms of reflection intended for Allah. One of them is reflecting on time duty and function and focusing entirely on it, for the knowledgeable one is the breed of his time. If he wastes it, all his interests are wasted, for all interests arise from time. If he wastes his time, he can never regain it.” Also, Imam Shafi’i said, “Out of my company with Sufis, I benefited only two things, one of which is their saying: like a sword, time will cut you if you do not cut it.…” In other words, if you do not spend time doing something useful, you are the loser by wasting it.
As expressed by Imam Hassan Al-Banna, “Time is life itself.” This reflects Ibn-Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah’s saying: “One’s time is in fact his age. It is the material of his eternal life either in everlasting joy or painful torture. It passes more quickly than clouds do. It is only the time one dedicates to Allah that constitutes one’s real life and age. The rest does not count; the life he leads in it is only animal life. Compared to a life of indulgence in appetitive activities, false aspirations and negligence of Allah’s remembrance – and at best in sleep and being idle – death is a much better alternative.”
Time is considered a vehicle for work. According to Ibn-ul-Qayyim, “The year is like a tree; months are its branches; days are the branch sticks; hours are its leaves; and the breaths are its fruits. Therefore, if one’s breaths are in obedience [to Allah and His Messenger], the fruits of his tree are good. If they are in disobedience, his fruits are bitter. The harvest is on the Appointed Day, when one’s fruits are found out to be good or bitter.”
Such is the Islamic view of time, and such were the Salaf’s ways with it. The following are some of the most important duties demanded of Muslims.
1- Ensure Benefiting from Time
It is absolutely necessary for Muslims to be careful about time. The Muslim is required to utilize and invest his time in what benefits him in this world and the Hereafter. In this regard, he can follow the good example set by the Righteous Salaf. They were so careful that in less than a century they were able to make radical changes in the societies into which they introduced Islam.
The Righteous Salaf made sure that no time, however short it was, passed without doing something useful, such as acquiring useful knowledge, doing good deeds, helping other Muslims and serving or advising the Ummah (nation). Remarking Imam Hammad Ibn-Salama Al-Basry’s  meticulous care for time, Musa Ibn-Ismaeel  said, “It is unbelievable! I have never seen Hammad laugh at all. He was always busy explaining the Hadith, praying, reading or praising the Lord. This is how he spent his day. Abdurrahman Al-Mahdi  said: If you were to tell Hammad, ‘You are going to die tomorrow’, there would be nothing he could add to what he is already doing.”
Once a wise man said, “If you spend one day on other than carrying out justice, performing obligatory worship, achieving some gain, praising the Lord, establishing something good or acquiring knowledge, you have been ungrateful to your day and have wronged yourself.”
2- Utilize Leisure Time
To be free from worry and distress is a great blessing, and to have a body free from diseases is a great blessing, too. However, they are the very blessings on which people are deceived. The Prophet was reported to have said, “There are two blessings on which people are cheated: health and leisure time.” This Hadith implies how people are unaware of the real value of health and leisure time; they are not properly invested in what is good for them in this world or the Hereafter. What a real loss!
Calling on Muslims to utilize their time, to benefit from it and not to waste it, the Prophet said, “On the Day of Resurrection the feet of the son of Adam [man] will not move away till he is questioned about four matters: how he spent his lifetime, how he spent his youth; from where he acquired his wealth and how he spent it, and what he did with his knowledge.”
He also said, “Grab five things before five others: your youth before your decrepitude, your health before your illness, your wealth before your poverty, your leisure before your work, and your life before your death.” This Hadith is a direct call on Muslims to invest their time as early as possible when conditions are favourable, i. e. youth, health, wealth and time before being handicapped by impediments, such as old age, sickness, poverty or preoccupation.
The Righteous Salaf were extremely careful about occupying their time with useful deeds, and they hated laziness and unemployment. Umar Ibn-Al-Khattab was reported to have said, “I do hate to see any of you unoccupied,  doing nothing for this world or the Hereafter.”
On the authority of Ibn-Mas’ud, the Prophet said, “I do hate to see a man doing nothing for this world or the Hereafter.”
Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradhawi says,”Leisure time will never remain unoccupied. It will be occupied with good or evil. If one does not occupy himself with truth, that self will make him occupied with falsehood. Successful is he who fills his time with what is good and righteous, and woe to him who fills it with evil and corruption.”
3- Vie for Good Deeds
Allah calls on Muslims to utilize time by racing for good deeds. He says,”(133) And vie one with another for forgiveness from your Lord,….” He also says,”(148) And each one hath a goal toward which he turneth; so vie with one another in good works. Wheresoever ye may be, Allah will bring you all together. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.…”
This world is the place for work. It can be compared to a racetrack full of dust. On it are those running for their whims and earthly enjoyment, and those who run for the good of the afterlife, but without neglecting their share in this life. When the race is over and the dust settles down, the one who wronged himself (by neglecting the afterlife) will be extremely sorry. As expressed in Arabic by the poet Abul’atahiyah:
“If you haven’t sown, but a reaper you see, Remorse you feel for sowing missed.”
The Righteous Salaf were fully aware of that fact. For example, Ali Ibn-Abi-Taalib said, “This world is departing, but the afterlife is arriving. Each of them has children. Be the children of the afterlife, not the children of this world. Today is only work, but no questioning, and tomorrow is questioning, but no work.”
Muslims are warned against the worst two things that impede racing for good deeds, i. e. disability and laziness. These two cause delay and waste. The Prophet warned against them and taught his wife Aisha to pray for protection from them as he used to; he prayed:”O Allah, I seek refuge in You from disability and laziness.”
The Muslim must race for doing whatever is good for this world and the Hereafter. He must not be a burden on others for a living. “A poor person who does not have a job to do is compared to the owl living in a deserted place and benefiting nobody.”
4- Learn from the Passage of Time
No day passes without having so many lessons to be learnt by the Muslim who is keen on reflecting on the creation of the heavens and the earth and the difference of night and day. About those people Allah says,”(190) Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are tokens (of His sovereignty) for men of understanding.”
On the Day of Judgment, days are a witness of man’s deeds since they constitute the time within which such deeds are carried out. In one Hadith the Prophet says, “No day starts without saying to man: ‘O son of Adam, I am a new creation, and in the future I will give witness on what you do within me. Do good and I will give (good) witness for you then. Beware, once I pass, you will never see me again.’ The night says the same thing.”
In his description of days as records, Ibn-ul-Jawzi said, “Days are the records of your deeds, so decorate them with the best of deeds. Opportunities pass like clouds, and it is only the slow that waste them. If one rides a disabled means of transport, it will not take him far, as slowness coupled with laziness will end in loss.”
Man’s life on earth is in fact passing days and hours. As expressed by Al-Hassan Al-Basry, “O son of Adam (O man), you are only days; when a day passes, a part of you does, too.” The same idea was expressed by Ahmad Shawki in this verse:
“Man’s heartbeats are telling him:Life’s but minutes and seconds.”
How ironic! Man feels so happy to see days and months pass as his salary, vacation or graduation certificate is approaching. Yet, he is unaware of the fact that those passing months are not only being deducted off his age, but also bringing him nearer to the Hereafter. This idea is well represented by Abul-Atahiyah’s verse: “Happy are we to be days spending, Yet, every day passing is our life ending.”
Advising his son, Salih Ibn-Janah Allakhmi  said ,”O my son, if a day and night passes without incurring loss regarding your faith, body or wealth, you must thank Allah a lot. Think of those who lost faith or property, those who had their privacy violated and those who were destroyed that very day, while you are safe and sound. In this regard, let me say these verses:
“Were I to be granted my wish, I’d ask only forgiveness and health. How many a youth was one night in luxury, From it, the following night, he was taken.”
Let me also tell you: “Like daylight, this world is, Borrowed its light is. While your branch is growing, It is still soft and green. If, one day, time throws it, Yellow it turns. So does night come, Only to be by day erased.”
5- Seek the Favourable Times
There is no difference among people regarding their share of time. They all have equal shares, but they differ in how they manage, invest and benefit from them.
Allah has designed and distributed time among his servants, yet He bestowed advantages to certain parts of it. For example, concerning acts of worship, Allah has allocated certain seasons, such as Ramadan and the first ten days of Thul-Hijjah, when rewards are multiplied. Similarly, there are certain hours when one’s prayers can be more favourably answered than at other times, such as the last third of the night, Friday afternoons, breakfast time after fasting and the Night of Decree (Lailatul-Qadr), which is in Ramadan.
Hassan Al-Banna says, “Every day, you have a time in the morning, a time in the evening and a time before dawn when you can uplift your purified soul to the Heavens, and so gain the good of this world and the Hereafter. You have also seasons for showing obedience to the commands of your Lord, days for worship and nights for acts that bring you nearer to Him. All these times have been pointed out to you by Allah’s Glorious Book and His great Messenger. Therefore, make sure to be among those remembering Allah, not those forgetting Him, and among those working, not those doing nothing, and you must utilize your time, for time is like the sword, and get rid of delaying tactics because there is nothing as harmful as they are.”
Concerning this world and man’s work for his livelihood, Allah has blessed early rising for work purposes by making such rising a means of success. The Prophet prayed for Muslims saying, “O Lord, bless my nation’s early rising!” Therefore, Muslims have to benefit from those appointed times as much as possible for this world and the Hereafter.
6- Planning and Organizing Time
Muslims are required to plan their time and establish priorities. This is crucial for investing time properly. The Righteous Salaf were aware of this requirement. For example, when Abu-Bakr was approaching death, he summoned Umar Ibn-Al-Khattab and entrusted him with the Caliphate after his death. Among the words of advice he said to Umar were: “Allah has morning rights that He does not accept at night, and has night rights He does not accept in the morning. Voluntary acts of worship are not accepted unless the compulsory ones are done.”
This piece of advice had implications for Umar as Abu-Bakr’s successor. It implied necessary awareness of planning and organizing time, identifying objectives, establishing priorities in terms of importance and implementing tasks within allocated time. Such was Abu-Bakr’s awareness of the significance of time planning and investment that at his deathbed he had to advise Umar on it. As expressed by Al-Qaradhaawi in other words, “The important thing is not to do anything any time, but to do the right thing at the right time.”
7- Fulfillment of Time Commitments
Islam urges Muslims to fulfill time commitments and promises. Commending believers for such a quality, Allah describes them by saying, “(8)… And who are shepherds of their pledge and their covenant….” Addressing Musa (Moses), Allah says, “(40) Then comest thou (hither) by (My) providence, O Moses….” This is explained as a reference to carrying out a task on time. In other words the verse means: Musa, you have come to Us at the right time when We want to send you on a mission to Pharaoh. 
Warning against delaying the fulfillment of promises, the Prophet said, “There are three qualities by which a hypocrite is recognized: if he speaks, he lies; if he promises, he goes back on his promise; and if he is entrusted with something, he betrays the trust.” The Hadith indicates the seriousness of going back on promises, for it wastes people’s time, causes harm and creates mistrust.
8- Necessary Awareness of Time Wasters
Islam has warned against wasting and not caring for time. It has set guidelines for preserving time. For instance, Muslims are called upon to ask for permission to enter places and see people. One must not enter someone else’s place without permission. In this respect, the Prophet said, “You can ask permission three times, but if you are not given permission, you have to leave.” Allah says, “(27) O ye who believe! Enter not houses other than your own without first announcing your presence and invoking peace upon the folk thereof. That is better for you, that ye may be heedful. (28) And if ye find no one therein, still enter not until permission hath been given. And if it be said unto you: Go away again, then go away, for it is purer for you. Allah knoweth what ye do.” In addition to teaching good manners, these commands are a means to saving Muslims’ time from being wasted by unplanned visits.
Of the worst wasters of time are procrastination and wishful thinking. In this respect, Al-Hassan Al-Basry said, “Never has one prolonged false hopes without bad consequences. As rightly expressed by Al-Qurtubi: ‘Prolonged wishful thinking develops laziness, slowness and negligence; it makes one pretend to be working, and makes him steep low and follow his whims.’” Warning against procrastination, he also said, “O man, beware of procrastination. It is today, not tomorrow, that must be your concern. If you have a tomorrow, make it your concern as you must make today. If you do not have a tomorrow, you will not regret not having wasted today.”
These are some of the Righteous Salaf’s statements in this regard:
“If your today is like your yesterday, you must be a loser. If your today is more evil than your yesterday, you must be damned.” Also, Abdullah Ibn-Mas’ud said, “Nothing is as regrettable as a day that passes without having increased my [good] deeds though having reduced my age.”
As Ali Ibn-Muhammad Al-Busti  said:
“Should a day pass, yet with my hands nothing did I, Nor knowledge gained, of my life count not that day.”
In a message to Yusuf Ibn-Asbaat , Muhammad Ibn-Samra Assa’ih  wrote: “O brother, beware of being controlled by procrastination, and do not let it occupy your heart, for it leads to boredom and loss, it destroys hopes, and it is a waste of life. O brother, therefore, take the initiative now, for you are a target for other initiatives; hurry up, for you are a target for speedy things to come; and be industrious, for living is a matter really serious.”
Imam Ibn-Aqeel  said, “I am not allowed to waste an hour of my life. If my tongue is not engaged in some debate or study, and if my eyes are not engaged in reading, I work in bed till I have prepared something to write. I find that I am keener on learning in my eighties than when I was in my twenties.”
The Qur’an warns those who waste their time and waste useful work opportunities; they are threatened with having to regret their inaction and to suffer its consequences on the Resurrection Day. On that Day, one of those people will typically say, “(24)… Ah, would that I had sent before me (some provision) for my life!” They will be also asking in grief and regret, “(44)… Our Lord! Reprieve us for a little while. We will obey Thy call and will follow the messengers.…” The answer will be, “Never!” The time for work, which must be done on earth, will have elapsed, and the Hereafter is only for judgment.
9- How Should a Muslim Spend His Time? 
For a Muslim to have his age blessed by Allah, he ought to follow an Islamic pattern of daily life. Such a pattern demands rising early and going to bed early.
A Muslim’s day begins at dawn, at least before sunrise. Metaphorically speaking, he begins his day before it is polluted by the disobedient who do not wake up till much later in the day. Thus, he is keen on having his day blessed in response to the Prophet’s prayers for early risers (“O Allah, bless my nation’s early rising.”) 
One of the worst things that have afflicted Muslims is that they have changed the pattern of their day; they stay up long during the night, and sleep into the day, and as a result miss the morning prayers. Some Righteous Salaf wondered how one should expect to be given of Allah’s bounty while he performs his morning prayers after the break of day.
In a Hadith reported by Abu-Hurayrah, the Prophet said, “Satan ties three knots at the back of your head when you sleep, and he seals the place of each knot with ‘You have a long night ahead, so sleep.’If you wake up and remember Allah, a knot is untied. If you wash for prayer, a knot is untied. If you pray, a knot is untied, and morning finds you lively and in good spirits, and if not, morning finds you in bad spirits and lazy.” What a great difference between the two cases! In one case, a person is free from Satan’s fetters, active, good-spirited and ready for a good day’s work. In the other case, one is in Satan’s fetters, sleepy, lazy, slow and evil-spirited.
Ideally, the Muslim opens his day with an act of obedience to Allah: he performs the morning prayers, compulsory and voluntary, and supplicates as the Prophet used to, as in: “We reached morning, and everything belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. O Allah, I ask You the good of today, its opening, victory, light, blessings and guidance, and I seek refuge in You from the evil it has and later evil.” ‘O Allah! Whatever favour has come to me, is from You alone, and You have no partners. To You all praise is due and all thanksgiving,’ 
Then, he reads as much of the Qur’an as he can in submission, reflection and understanding, for Allah says, “(29) (This is) a Scripture that We have revealed unto thee, full of blessing, that they may ponder its revelations, and that men of understanding may reflect.”
After he eats breakfast in moderation, he sets out for his daily work, earning a living. He makes the effort to be doing some legal, useful work. However rich one might be, he could take a supervisory or control role, for – as the Arab proverb says – unsupervised money invites stealing.
To be involved in usury is forbidden by Islam, for usury inevitably generates money, but without having to work, sharing or taking risks. A usurer is guaranteed a percentage on the money he lends without having to bear any responsibilities. This type of dealing is anti-Islamic. Islam considers man’s responsibility on earth to be work and construction. As Allah says, “(61)… He brought you forth from the earth and hath made you husband it.…”
As one takes, so must one give. In return for what he consumes, he must produce. It is, therefore, unacceptable to be doing nothing, while living on others’ earnings, even if it is claimed to be for worship’s sake; there is no monasticism in Islam.
Regarding unemployment, Ibn-Azzubair said, “The worst evil in the world is unemployment” In other words, “If man does not have a job which is legally allowed, which keeps him engaged from within and which supports him in discharging his religious duties, he will be empty from without, but his heart will not be so; it will be filled with Satan and his offspring, which will reproduce much faster than animals. If one does not have a profession of benefit to people, he will be drawing from their gains, and consequently be a burden on them. In addition to being of no use to them, he becomes a source of trouble and inflation. That is why Umar used to say if he saw a handsome man, ‘Does he have a job?’ If the answer was negative, the man fell from his eyes.”
The Muslim regards his earthly work as an act of worship and a kind of Jihad (struggle), provided that: it is intended for Allah’s sake; it does not keep one away from Allah’s remembrance; it is responsibly and properly done. In fact, proper execution of deeds is an Islamic requirement. According to Prophet Muhammad, “Allah has demanded that everything be perfect.” In another Hadith, “Allah – blessings and exaltation be to Him – loves any of you, if he is doing something, to do it properly.”
The Muslim has a duty towards his society. He is required to help others and facilitate things for them so that he can qualify for Allah’s reward. On the authority of Abu-Musa, the Prophet said, “Every Muslim has to give in charity. “The people asked, “O Allah’s Prophet! If someone has nothing to give, what will he do? “He said, “He should work with his hands and benefit himself and also give in charity (from what he earns).”The people further asked, “If he cannot find even that?” He replied, “He should help the needy who appeal for help. “Then the people asked, “If he cannot do that?” He replied, “Then he should perform good deeds and keep away from evil deeds and this will be regarded as charity.”
Thus, the Muslim has to pay a daily social tax or charity. In fact, it is considered compulsory on every joint in the body every day. As a result, a Muslim becomes a continuously flowing spring of good, benefit and peace for every one and every thing around him. In a Hadith narrated by Abu-Hurayrah, the Prophet said, “Charity is obligatory every day on every joint of a human being. If one helps a person ride his animal or lift his luggage onto it, this is regarded as charity. A good word is charity, and every step one takes to pray in congregation is charity, and removing something harmful from the road is charity.”
In the above Hadith, ‘joint’ refers to every part of the human body. It is a reminder of Allah’s blessings to man, whom He created in the best form. Therefore, he has to express gratitude to Allah for all His blessings by using those parts in His service, e.g. be useful to fellow humans and do as much good to them as possible.
When they call for the noon prayer, the Muslim does his best to pray in congregation. The sooner one offers prayers, the more pleasing to Allah, for He demands racing for good deeds. Allah’s Messenger was so angry with those who missed the congregation that he wished he would set their houses on fire. This shows how important congregational prayer is. In fact, it gets a reward 27 times more than that of individual prayer.
Having performed the noon prayer, the Muslim has his lunch, which must be from the allowed types and good sources. Regarding eating, one should not eat too much, otherwise he gets indigestion, nor should he eat too little, otherwise he becomes deprived. As Allah commands us, “(31) O Children of Adam! Look to your adornment at every place of worship, and eat and drink, but be not prodigal. Lo! He loveth not the prodigals. (32) Say: Who hath forbidden the adornment of Allah which He hath brought forth for His bondmen, and the good things of His providing?…”
In hot countries, particularly in summer, some people may need some rest in the middle of the day so that they can wake up for extra prayers at night as well as for early rising. This is mentioned in the Qur’an: “(58)… and when ye lay aside your raiment for the heat of noon….”
In the afternoon, as soon as they call for the Asr prayer, those resting get up and those working stop. This prayer is specially important as it is the middle prayer, and Muslims must not be distracted from it by buying, selling or entertainment. Positive response to prayer calls is typical of believers. In their description, Allah says, “(37) Men whom neither merchandise nor sale beguileth from remembrance of Allah and constancy in prayer and paying to the poor their due; who fear a day when hearts and eyeballs will be overturned ….”
Muslims are encouraged not to delay the Asr prayer till the sun is about to set, for such delay indicates negligence of prayers, and is a sign typical of hypocrites. In a related Hadith, the Prophet says,”This is the hypocrite’s prayer; he waits till the sun comes between Satan’s horns, thence he hurriedly performs four Rak’as in which there is hardly any mention of Allah.”
At sunset, the Muslim goes for the Maghrib (sunset) prayer early on, for there is a short period between it and the following prayer, the Isha prayer. Having performed the Maghrib prayer, the Muslim does supplication as the Prophet used to do. For example, he can say, “O Allah, this is Your night coming, and Your day going, and these are the voices of Your callers. Forgive my sins.” There are other evening supplications, similar to the morning ones already mentioned; instead of saying ‘morning’, one says ‘evening’.
After the Muslim has his evening meal, which should be done in moderation, he offers the Isha prayer and voluntary prayers. The Watr (the single Rak’ah of the voluntary prayers) can be delayed if one is accustomed to waking up during the night, but if not, one should do it before going to bed. Some Muslims may prefer to have their evening meal after the Isha prayer. However, for one reason or another, if the meal and the prayer coincide, the eating should be done first, otherwise one will be distracted during prayer. Before going to bed, the Muslim can also do some duties, such as visiting relatives and acquaintances and other social activities.
The Muslim should do some reading daily so as to increase his knowledge, for the Prophet used to say, “(114)… and say: My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.” For his reading one should select content beneficial for this world and the Hereafter. As wisely expressed, “Show me what you are reading, and I will tell you what kind of person you are.”
The Muslim can entertain himself by day or night, but with the type of fun that is Islamically acceptable, i.e., it does not encroach on such duties as acts of worship, sleep, rest, family affairs, proper accomplishment of work and other people’s rights.
 Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Tahtheeb Madarij Assaliheen, investigated by Abdul-Mun’im Salih Al-‘Ali, Beirut, Muassat Arrisalah, 1989, Vol. 2, p. 776.
ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيم الجوزية [691 – 751هـ]، تهذيب مدارج السالكين، هذبه عبد المنعم صالح العلي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1409هـ – 1989م، ج2 ص 776.
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, in Arabic, Amman, Dar Majdalaawi, 1991, p. 132.
أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م، ص 132.
 Ibid. , pp. 137-138 أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 137-138
 A. Mackenzie, the president of an American company in New York, is well known for his enthusiasm for teaching and learning management and professional development. Among his publications are TimeTrap, Managing your Time and New Time Management Methods. See: Temp, Dale: Time Management (Arabic translation by Waleed Hawanah), Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh, 1991, p. 93 and p. 175.
أليك ماكنزي: رئيس مؤسسة ماكنزي وشركاه الموجودة في جرينوش بولاية نيويورك الأمريكية، وقد اشترك بحماسة في تشجيع المديرين الكبار في جميع أنحاء العالم على تعلم الإدارة وتعلم التنمية المهنية. ومن أشهر منشوراته: مصيدة الوقت، إدارة وقتك، طرق جديدة في إدارة الوقت وغيرها. (تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت، ترجمة وليد هوانه، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1991م، ص93، 175).
 Mackenzie, R. A.: New Time Management Methods, London: The Darnell Corporation,1990. , P. 49.
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad and Al-Qaryuti, Mohamed: Time Management in Jordanian Government Institutions, op. cit., p. 106.
أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، والقريوتي، محمد، إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية الأردنية، مرجع سابق، ص 106.
 Drucker, P., The Effective Executive, N. Y., Harper and Row, 1982. , PP. 42-45.
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, op. cit., pp. 183-184.
أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 183-184.
 Temp, Dale: Time Management, op. cit. , pp. 494-495.
تيمب دايل، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص494-495.
 Asfure, M. Shakir: “How the Manager Spends his Official Work Time”, in Arabic, a paper presented at the Symposium on Productivity Obstacles in the Government Sector, Riyadh, Institute of Public Administration, 1400, p. 11.
عصفور، محمد شاكر، كيفية إشغال المدير لوقت الدوام الرسمي، ندوة الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي ومعوقاتها، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1400هـ، ص 11.
 Al-Ghaith, Mohamed Ibn Abdullah: “Productivity in the Government Sector, Concept, Obstacles and Methods and Means of Improvement”, Administrative Journal, Year 12, Issue No. 41, Muskat, Institute of Administration, June, p. 129.
الغيث، محمد بن عبد الله، الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي: المفهوم المعوقات وسائل وطرق تحسين الإنتاجية، مجلة الإداري، س (12)، عدد (41)، معهد الإدارة، مسقط، يونيو1990م، ص 129.
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, op. cit. , p. 186.
أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 186 بتصرّف.
 Ibid. , pp. 139-140 انظر: المرجع نفسه، ص 139-140
 Webster’s New World, College Dictionary, op. cit. , p. 169. (Brain storming: the unrestrained offering of ideas or suggestions by all members of acommittee, conference, etc. in an effort to find a solution to a problem, generate fresh ideas, etc. )
 Salama, S. Ben-Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op. cit. , pp. 99-100.
انظر: سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص 99-100
 Hilal, A. Hassan: Skills of Time Management, in Arabic, Cairo, The Centre for Enhancing Performance and Development, 1995, pp. 56-57.
هلال، عبد الغني حسن، مهارات إدارة الوقت، مركز تطوير الأداء والتنمية، القاهرة، 1995م، ص 56- 57.
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, op. cit., p. 137.
أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 137.
 Ibn-Al-Mubarak, Abdullah: Azzuhd (Asceticism), op. cit., p. 51.
ابن المبارك، عبد الله بن المبارك بن واضح المروزي [118-181هـ]، الزهد، تحقيق حبيب الرحمن الأعظمي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1419هـ – 1998م، ص51.
 Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Adda’ wa Addawa’ (Disease and Cure), investigated by Ali H. Al–Halabi, 1999, pp. 238-239.
ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية [691 – 751 هـ]، الداء والدواء، تحقيق علي بن حسن الحلبي، دار ابن الجوزي، الرياض، ط3، 1419هـ-1999م، ص 238-239.
 Ibid. , p. 239 المرجع نفسه، ص 239
 Al-Mutawwi’, Jassim Mohamed: Time: Construction or Destruction, in Arabic, 1992, Vol. 1, p. 99.
المطوع، جاسم محمد، الوقت عمار أو دمار، دار الدعوة، الكويت، ط6، 1412هـ – 1992م، ج1 ص 99.
 Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Adda’ wa Addawa’ (Disease and Cure), op. cit., p. 239.
ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية، الداء والدواء، مرجع سابق، ص 239.
 Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Al-Fawaed (Benefits), investigated by B. M. Uyun, 1988, p. 292.
ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية [691 – 751 هـ]، الفوائد، تحقيق بشير محمد عيون، مكتبة المؤيد، الطائف، ط2، 1408هـ – 1988م، ص292.
 Aththahabi, Shamsuddeen [748 H. ]: Tathkirat Al-Huffath, footnotes by Sheikh Zakariyya Umairat, Beirut, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1998, Vol. 1, p. 151.
انظر: الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ ت 748هـ ]، تذكرة الحفاظ، وضع حواشيه الشيخ زكريا عميرات، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت 1419هـ – 1998م، ج1 ص 289.
 Ibid. , Vol. 1, p. 289.
انظر: الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان، تذكرة الحفاظ، مرجع سابق، ج1 ص 151.
 Abdurrahman Ibn-Mahdi Ibn-Hassan Ibn-Abdurrahman, a critic and an able reciter. He was considered a good model for knowledge and work. See: Aththahabi, Shamsuddeen: Biographies of Noble Scholars, op. cit. , Vol. 9, pp. 192-193.
عبد الرحمن بن مهدي بن حسّان بن عبد الرحمن الإمام الناقد المجوّد سيد الحفاظ أبو سعيد العنبري، ولد سنة 135هـ، وكان إماماً حجة قدوة في العلم والعمل. (الذهبي، محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ت748هـ]، سير أعلام النبلاء، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط ومأمون الصاغرجي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط6، 1409هـ، [1-23]، ج9 ص 192-193.
 Al-Mazzi, Abu-Hajjaj Yusuf: Tahtheeb Al-Kamal fi Asma’ Arrijal, in Arabic, investigated by B. A. Ma’ruf, 1992, Vol. 7, p. 265.
المزي، أبو الحجاج يوسف [654-742هـ]، تهذيب الكمال في أسماء الرجال، تحقيق بشار عواد معروف، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط4، 1413هـ – 1992م، [1-30]، ج7 ص265.
 Al-Asbahani, Abu-Naeem: Hilyatul-Awliya’wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiya’(The Pious Friends’ Ornaments and Classes of the Pure) in Arabic, investigated by Mustafa Abdul-Qadir Ata, 1418, Vol. 3, p. 149.
الأصبهاني، أبو نعيم أحمد بن عبد الله [ت430هـ]، حلية الأولياء وطبقات الأصفياء، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط1، 1418هـ، [1-12]، ج3 ص 49.
 Ibid. , Narration No. 3509, Vo. 3, p. 151 المرجع نفسه، رقم الرواية (3509)، ج 3 ص 151
 Al-Minawi, Abdurra’uf: Faidh Al-QadeerbSharh Al-Jami Assagheer op. cit. , Vol. 6, P. 288.
المناوي، عبد الرؤوف [952 – 1031 هـ]، فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير، المكتبة التجارية الكبرى، مصر، ط1، 1356هـ، [1-6]، ج6 ص 288.
 Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 81, Chapter 1, Hadith No. 6412, p. 1232.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل [194-256هـ]، صحيح البخاري، اعتنى به أبو صهيب الكرمي، بيت الأفكار الدولية، 1419هـ-1998م، كتاب (81)، باب (1)، رقم الحديث (6412)، ص 1232.
 Attabarani, Abul-Qasim: Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer (The Great Dictionary), Vol 20. page 61. & Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, op. , cit. , Book No. 38, Chapter 1, Vol. 4, p. 612, Hadith No. 2417.
الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد [260-360هـ]، المعجم الكبير، تحقيق حمدي بن عبد المجيد السلفي، مكتبة ابن تيمية، القاهرة، ط2، 1404هـ- 1983م، [1-25]، رقم الحديث (111)، ج20 ص61. والترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي، تحقيق أحمد محمد شاكر، مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى الحلبي، ط2، 1398هـ، كتاب(38)، باب (1)، رقم الحديث (2417)، ج4 ص 612، وقال هذا حديث حسن صحيح.
 Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak, op. cit. , Book No. 44, Vol. 4, p. 341.
الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1411هـ – 1990م، [1-4]، كتاب (44)، رقم الحديث (7846)، ج4 ص 341، وقال: هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرّجاه. ووافقه الذهبي.
 Al-Fairuz-Abadi, Majduddin: Al-Qamus Al-Muhit
تَهْلَلَ: اسم للباطل. انظر: (الفيروز أبادي، مجد الدين محمد بن يعقوب، القاموس المحيط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط2، 1407هـ – 1987م، باب اللام، فصل الهاء، ص 1385.
 Azzamakhshari, Abul-Qasim: Al-Kashshf ’an Haqaeq Ghawamidh At-Tanzeel wa’Uyun Al-Aqaweel fi Wujuh At-Ta’weel (The Fact-Finder of the Mysteries of the Qur’an and of the Main Sayings on Aspects of Explanation), in Arabic, investigated by Mohamed A. Shaheen, 1995, Vol. 4, p. 761.
الزمخشري، أبو القاسم جار الله محمد بن عمر بن محمد [467-538]، الكشاف عن حقائق غوامض التنزيل وعيون الأقاويل في وجوه التأويل، تحقيق محمد عبد السلام شاهين، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1415هـ – 1995م، [1-4]، ج4 ص 761.
 Attabarani, Abul-Qasim: Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer (The Great Dictionary), op. cit., Vol. 9. p.102.
الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد [260-360هـ]، المعجم الكبير، تحقيق حمدي بن عبد المجيد السلفي، مكتبة ابن تيمية، القاهرة، ط2، 1404هـ – 1983م، [1-25]، رقم الرواية (8538)، ج9 ص 102. والهيثمي، علي بن أبي بكر [ت807هـ]، مجمع الزوائد ومنبع الفوائد، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1408هـ، [1-10]، ج 4 ص 63.
 Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf: Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit. , p. 15
القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط7، 1417هـ-1997م، ص 15.
 Surat Ala-Imran, Verse 133 سورة آل عمران الآية 
 Surat Al-Baqarah, Verse 148 سورة البقرة الآية 
 Ibn-Khamees, Abdullah Mohamed: Questions and Answers on Poetry, Vol. 3, p. 62.
ابن خميس، عبد الله محمد، من القائل: أسئلة وأجوبة في الشعر، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1406هـ – 1986م، ج3 ص 62.
 Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 81, Chapter 4, p. 1232.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (81)، باب (4)، ص 1233.
 Ibid. , Book 56, Chapter 25, Hadith No. 2823. , p. 545. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 4, Book 48, Chapter 15, p. 2079, Hadith No. 2706.
المرجع نفسه، كتاب (56)، باب (25)، رقم الحديث (2823)، ص 545. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري [206-261هـ]، صحيح مسلم، تحقيق محمد فؤاد عبدالباقي، دار إحياء الكتب العربية، القاهرة، دت، كتاب (48)، باب (15)، رقم الحديث (2706)، ج4 ص2079.
 Al-Minawi, Abdurra’uf: Faidh Al-Qadeer fi Sharh Al-Jami Assagheer, op. cit. , Vol. 2, P. 291.
المناوي، عبد الرؤوف، فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير، المكتبة التجارية الكبرى، مصر، ط، 1356هـ، [1-6]، ج 2 ص 291.
 Surat Ala-Imran, Verse 190 سورة آل عمران الآية 
 Al-Asbahani, Abu-Naeem: op. cit. , Hadith No. 2501, Vol. 2, p. 344.
الأصبهاني، أبو نعيم أحمد بن عبد الله، حلية الأولياء وطبقات الأصفياء، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط1، 1418هـ، [1-12]، رقم الحديث (2501)، ج2 ص344.
 Abdul-’Al, Sha’ban Jibreel: Time: More Precious than All Treasures on Earth, in Arabic, 1997, p. 25.
عبد العال، شعبان جبريل، الوقت أغلى من كنوز الأرض، دار ابن خزيمة، الرياض، 1418هـ- 1997م، ص25.
 Aththahabi, Shamsuddeen: Biographies of Noble Scholars, op. cit., Vol. 4, p. 585.
الذهبي، محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ت748هـ]، سير أعلام النبلاء، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط ومأمون الصاغرجي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط6، 1409هـ، [1-23]، ج4 ص585.
 Shawqi, Ahmad: Ash-Shawqiyyat, 1987, Vol. 3, p. 152.
شوقي، أحمد، الشوقيات، مكتبة التربية، بيروت، 1987م، ج3 ص 152.
 Ibn-Khamees, Abdullah Mohamed: Man Al-Qael? (Questions and Answers on Poetry), op. cit. , Vol. 2, p. 190.
ابن خميس، عبد الله محمد، من القائل: أسئلة وأجوبة في الشعر، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1406هـ – 1986م، مج 2 ص 190.
 Salih Ibn-Janah Allakhmi was a poet, and was known for his wisdom; his sayings are beneficial. See: Ibn-Asakir, Abul-Qasim: The History of Damascus, investigated by Muhibbuddin Al-Amrawi, 1995, Vol. 23, p. 325.
هو صالح بن جناح اللخمي الشاعر أحد الحكماء، كان ممن أدرك الأتباع بلا شك وكلامه مستفاد في الحكمة. انظر: (ابن عساكر، أبو القاسم علي بن الحسن بن هبة الله، تاريخ دمشق، تحقيق محب الدين أبي سعيد عمر بن غرامة العمروي، دار الفكر، بيروت، 1415هـ-1995م، ج23 ص325).
 Ibid. , Vol. 23, pp. 325-327 المرجع نفسه، ج23 ص325-327
 Abdul-’Al, Sha’ban Jibreel: Time: More Precious than All Treasures on Earth, op. cit. , pp. 31-32.
عبد العال، شعبان جبريل، الوقت أغلى من كنوز الأرض، دار ابن خزيمة، الرياض، 1418هـ – 1997م، ص 31-32.
 Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman: Sunan Abi-Dawud, Vol. 2, Book 9, Chapter 77, Hadith No. 2606, p. 41. & Ibn-Bilban, Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, op. cit. , Vol. 11, p. 62, Hadith No. 4754.
أبو داود، سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، فهرسة كمال يوسف الحوت، دار الجنان، 1409هـ، كتاب (9)، باب (77) رقم الحديث (2606)، ج2 ص 41. وابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي [ت739هـ]، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1418هـ-1997م، [1-18]، رقم الحديث (4754)، ج11 ص 62.
 Ibn-Al-Jawzi, Abdurrahman Ibn-Ali Ibn-Mohamed Abul-Faraj: Great Personality Traits of the Emir of the Faithful Umar Ibn-ul-Khattab, in Arabic, investigated by Zainab Ibraheem Al-Qaarut, pp. 56-57.
ابن الجوزي، عبد الرحمن بن علي بن محمد أبو الفرج [510 – 597 هـ]، مناقب أمير المؤمنين عمر بن الخطاب، تحقيق زينب إبراهيم القاروط، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، دت، ص 56-57.
 Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf: Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit. , p. 21.
القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مرجع سابق، ص 21.
 Surat Al-Mu’minun, Verse 8 سورة المؤمنون الآية 
 Surat Taha, Verse 40 سورة طه الآية 
 Assaabuni, Mohamed Ali and Ridha, Salih Ahmad: Attabari, Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, op. cit, Vol. 2, p. 50.
الصابوني، محمد علي، ورضا، صالح أحمد، مختصر تفسير الطبري، عالم الكتب، ط1، 1415هـ- 1985م، ج2 ص 50.
 Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 2, Chapter 24, Hadith No. 33, p. 30. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 1, Book 1, Chapter 25, p. 87, Hadith No. 59.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (2)، باب (24)، رقم الحديث (33)، ص 30. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح الإمام مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (1)، باب (25)، رقم الحديث (59)، ج1 ص 78.
 Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 3, Book 38, Chapter 7, p. 1694, Hadith No. 2153.
القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (38)، باب (7)، رقم الحديث (2153)، ج3 ص 1694.
 Surat An-Nur, Verses 27-28 سورة النور الآيات [27 – 28]
 Al-Qurtubi, M. Ibn-Ahmad: A Comprehensive Book of Qur’anic Rulings, op. cit. , Vol. 3, p. 3.
القرطبي، محمد بن أحمد، الجامع لأحكام القرآن، تحقيق عبد الرزاق المهدي، دار الكتاب العربي، بيروت، ط3، 1421هـ – 2000م، [ 1 – 20 ]، ج10 ص3.
 Ibn-Al-Mubarak, Abdullah: Azzuhd (Asceticism), op. cit., p. 51.
ابن المبارك، عبد الله بن المبارك بن واضح المروزي [118-181هـ]، الزهد، تحقيق حبيب الرحمن الأعظمي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1419هـ – 1998م، ص51.
 Al-Qurashi, Abdullah Ibn-Mohamed, The Best of Manners, 1990, Vol. 1, p. 29.
القرشي، عبد الله بن محمد، مكارم الأخلاق، تحقيق مجدي السيد إبراهيم، مكتبة القرآن، القاهرة، 1411هـ – 1990م، ج1 ص 29.
 Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf: Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit. , p. 13
القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مرجع سابق، ص 13.
 Op. cit, p. 13 المرجع نفسه، ص 13
 Ibid, p. 13 المرجع نفسه، ص 13
 Abul-Fat-h Ali Ibn-Al-Hussein Al-Busti (330-400) was a poet, a writer, an excellent speaker and an authority on Fiqh. He was born in Bust, a town in Afghanistan. He was a follower of the Shafi’i School of thought.
See: Al-Busti, A. Ibn-Mohamed Ibn-Al-Hussein: “A Poem on Government Title”, commentary by A. Abu-Ghaddah, Islamic Publications Office, Allepo (Halab), 1984.
أبو الفتح علي بن محمد بن الحسين البستي الشاعر الناثر والأديب الأريب والمحدّث الفاضل والفقيه الشافعي، ولد في مدينة بُسْت من بلاد أفغانستان في حدود سنة 330هـ وتوفي في عام 400هـ. انظر: (البستي، علي بن محمد ابن الحسين، قصيدة عنوان الحكم، ضبط وتعليق عبد الفتاح أبو غدة، مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية، حلب، ط1، 1404هـ-1984م، ص 7 ).
 Abu-Abdul-Bar, Abu-Omar Al-Qurtubi: A Comprehensive Statement on knowledge and its Value, Vol. 1, p. 61.
ابن عبد البر، أبو عمر يوسف بن عبد الله بن محمد بن عبد البر النمري القرطبي [368-463 هـ]، جامع بيان العلم وفضله، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، دت، ج1 ص61.
 Yusuf Ibn-Asbaat Azzahid was known for his wise sayings and preaching. See: Shamsuddeen Aththahabi’s Biographies of Noble Scholars, op. cit., Vol. 9, p. 169.
يوسف بن أسباط، الزاهد، من سادات المشايخ، له مواعظ وحِكم. انظر: (الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان، سير أعلام النبلاء، مرجع سابق، ج9 ص169).
 Mohamed Ibn-Samra Assaeh was one of those selected by Ibn-Al-Jawzi for his book Sifat Assafwah (Traits of The Elite). See: Ibn-Al-Jawzi, Abdurrahman Ibn-Ali Ibn-Mohamed Abul-Faraj: Sifat Assafwah, investigated by Ibraheem Ramadan and Saeed Al-Lahham, 1989, Vol. 4. , pp. 201-202.
محمد بن سمرة السائح من الأصفياء الذين ذكرهم ابن الجوزي في كتابه صفة الصفوة. انظر: (ابن الجوزي، عبد الرحمن بن علي بن محمد أبو الفرج [510 – 597 هـ]، صفة الصفوة، تحقيق إبراهيم رمضان وسعيد اللحّام، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1409هـ – 1989م، ج 4 ص 201 – 202).
 Ibn-Al-Jawzi, Abdurrahman Ibn-Ali Ibn-Mohamed Abul-Faraj: Sifat Assafwah (Traits of The Elite), investigated by Ibraheem Ramadan and Saeed Al-Lahham, 1989, Vol. 4. , pp. 201-202.
ابن الجوزي، عبد الرحمن بن علي بن محمد أبو الفرج، صفة الصفوة، مرجع سابق، ج 4 ص 201 – 202.
 Ibn-Aqeel (431-513 H. ) was a follower of the Hanbali School of thought. See: Shamsuddeen Aththahabi’s Biographies of Noble Scholars, op. cit. , Vol. 19, p. 443.
ابن عقيل هو الإمام العلاّمة البحر شيخ الحنابلة أبو الوفاء علي بن عقيل بن محمد بن عقيل بن عبد الله البغدادي الظفري الحنبلي المتكلّم صاحب التصانيف، ولد سنة 431هـ وتوفي 513هـ. انظر: (الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان، سير أعلام النبلاء، مرجع سابق، ج19 ص443).
 Ibn-Hajar, A. A. Al-Asqalani: Lisan Al-Meezan (The Tongue Balance), in Arabic, investigated by Adel A. Abdul-Mawjud, 1996, Vol. 4, p. 284.
ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني [773 – 852 هـ]، لسان الميزان، تحقيق عادل أحمد عبد الموجود وعلي محمد معوّض، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط1، 1416هـ-1996م، [1-7]، ج 4 ص 284.
 Surat Al-Fajr, Verse 24 سورة الفجر الآية 
 Surat Ibrahim, Verse 44 سورة إبراهيم الآية 
 Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf: Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit., pp. 25 – 31.
انظر: القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مرجع سابق، ص 25-31. بتصرّف
 Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman: Sunan Abi-Dawud, op. cit. , Vol. 2, Book 9, Chapter 77, Hadith No. 2606, p. 41. & Ibn-Bilban, Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, op. cit. , Vol. 11, p. 62, Hadith No. 4754.
أبو داود، سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، مرجع سابق، كتاب (9)، باب (77)، رقم الحديث (2606)، ج2 ص 41. وابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، مرجع سابق، رقم الحديث (4754)، ج11 ص 62.
 Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit., Book 19, Chapter 22, Hadith No. 1142, p. 225. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 1, Book 6, Chapter 28, p. 538, Hadith No. 776.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (19)، باب (12)، رقم الحديث (1142)، ص 225. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح الإمام مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب(6)، باب (28)، رقم الحديث (776)، ج1 ص 538.
 Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman: Sunan Abi-Dawud, op. cit. , Vol. 2, Book 35, Chapter 110, Hadith No. 5084, p. 743.
أبو داود، سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، مرجع سابق، كتاب(35)، باب(110)، رقم الحديث(5084)، ج2 ص 743.
 Ibid. , Sunan Abi-Dawud, Book 35, Chapter 110, Hadith No. 5073, Vol. 2, p. 739. & Ibn-Bilban, Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, op. cit. , Vol. 3, p. 142, Hadith No. 861
المرجع نفسه، كتاب (35)، باب (110)، رقم الحديث (5073)، ج2ص 739. وابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، مرجع سابق، رقم الحديث (861)، ج3 ص142.
 Surat Saad, Verse 29 سورة ص الآية 
 Surat Hud, Verse 61 سورة هود الآية 
 Al-Minawi, Abdurra’uf: Faidh Al-Qadeer Sharh Al-Jami Assagheer, op. cit. Vol. 2, P. 290.
المناوي، عبد الرؤوف، فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير، المكتبة التجارية الكبرى، مصر، ط، 1356هـ، [1-6]، ج 2 ص 290.
 Ibid. , Vol. 2, p. 90 المرجع نفسه، ج 2 ص 290
 Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, op. cit. , Vol. 3, Book 34, Chapter 11, p. 548, Hadith No. 1955.
القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (34)، باب(11)، رقم الحديث (1955)، ج3 ص 1548.
 Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein: Branches of Faith, op. cit. , Vol. 2 4, Chapter 35, Hadith No. 5312, p. 334. & Al-Musili, Abu-Ya’la: Musnad Abu-Y’ala Al-Musili, 1st. ed. , Vol. 7, investigated by H. Salim Assad, 1984, Hadith No. 4386, p. 349.
البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين [384-458هـ]، شعب الإيمان، تحقيق محمد السعيد بسيوني زغلول، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ [1-8]، الباب (35)، رقم الحديث (5312)، ج4 ص334. وأبويعلى، أحمد بن علي بن المثنى الموصلي [210-307هـ]، مسند أبي يعلى، تحقيق حسين سليم أسد، دار المأمون للتراث، دمشق، ط1، 1404هـ – 1984م، [1-13]، رقم الحديث (4386)، ج7 ص349.
 Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 78, Chapter 33, Hadith No. 6022, p. 1166. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, op. cit. , Vol. 2, Book 12, Chapter 16, p. 699, Hadith No. 1008.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (78)، باب (33)، رقم الحديث(6022)، ص 1166. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (12)، باب (16)، رقم الحديث(1008)، ج2 ص 699.
 Ibid. , Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 56, Chapter 128, Hadith No. 2989, p. 573. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2, Book 12, Chapter 16, p. 699, Hadith No. 1009.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (56)، باب (128)، رقم الحديث (2989)، ص 573. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب(12)، باب(16)، رقم الحديث (1009)، ج2 ص 699.
 Surat Al-A’raf, Verses 31-32 سورة الأعراف الآيات [31-32]
 Surat An-Nur, Verse 58 سورة النور الآية 
 Surat An-Nur, Verse 37 سورة النور الآية 
 Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, Book 5, Chapter 34, p. 434, Hadith No. 622.
القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (5)، باب (34)، رقم الحديث (622)، ج1 ص 434.
 Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman: Sunan Abi-Dawud, Vol. 1, Book 39, Chapter 77, Hadith No. 530, p. 201. & Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak, op. cit. , Book No. 44, Vol. 4, p. 341.
أبو داود، سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، مرجع سابق، كتاب(2)، باب (39)، رقم الحديث (530)، ج1 ص 201. والحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1411هـ- 1990م، [1-4]، كتاب(44)، رقم الحديث(7846)، ج4 ص 341، وقال: هذا حديث صحيح ولم يخرّجاه، ووافقه الذهبي.
 Surat Taha, Verse 114 سورة طه الآية 
Effective Management of Time
As an activity, management aims at the achievement of specific objectives within a context of available resources and conditions. Achievement of objectives is tied to a time schedule and a defined plan. Success or failure cannot be completely measured or recognized except within the required or specified time. This gives rise to the problem of time at all management levels: How can they achieve defined objectives, or perform tasks within the specified period of time? Obviously, the problem is not one of lack of time; time is equally available for all. It is a problem of effectiveness of managing and utilizing time.
This chapter comprises three sections:
5.1 Equipment and Means of Time Management and Control
5.2 Effective Methods of Time Management
5.3 Toward a Better Approach to Effective Time Management
5.1 Means of Time Management and Control
Modern technology represents the most important source of means of effective time management and control. Due to rapid development of electronic devices and modern office services, information can be communicated very fast, saving time, therefore. Such devices are designed for the modern manager, in particular, to facilitate organization of information, data processing, file arrangement, preparation of necessary documents, upgrading of old information, fast communication by modern means, saving time and effort.
The means to manage and control work time can be divided into two groups: electronic and non-electronic.
5.1.1 Electronic Means
This group includes such devices and tools as computers, photocopiers, fax-machines, scanners, answer machine telephones, mobile phones, the internet, electronic mail and electronic calendars. Let us examine each of these devices.
Computers perform a great deal of tasks in managers’ offices and all organizations today. They perform multiple tasks and provide the manager with accurate results much faster and at much lower cost than manual methods do. There is a lot of software today that can execute the simplest as well as the most complicated operations in all fields, particularly in projects. Computers are now available for all, and prices depend on memory capacity, information processing speed, tremendously effective in saving time.
Computers come in different sizes, mainly desktops and laptops. The manager can make use of the latter wherever he goes, for instance on the plane, in the hotel or in the car. Also, the modem can be used for communicating information by telephone. As a result of all these facilities, the manager’s time can be optimally invested, and his productivity increases. There are also computer programmes for business organizations, such as those for financial analysis, purchases and inventory as well as for organizing task performance times.
126.96.36.199 Photocopiers, Fax-Machines and Scanners
These technological devices are really time saving. For example, photocopiers can be used to prepare a lot of documents and copies, in varied sizes, in the required number and possibly coloured. Choice of the photocopier type depends on such factors as cost, speed and whether it is colour or black-and-white.
As for scanners, they are used for scanning pictures and documents, putting them into archives, storing copies of documents and transforming them into computer texts. By facilitating access to such documents, scanners naturally save a tremendous amount of time.
The fax-machine is now an essential device in today’s office. With respect to sending and receiving documents, it combines the functions of the telephone, photocopier and computer modem. Therefore, it helps a great deal in managing time more efficiently, due to speedy transfer of documents, and the possibility of benefiting from night-time cheap telephone rates.
Furthermore, modern technological advances have combined all those functions into one device, saving space, costs and time.
188.8.131.52 Answer-Machines and Mobile Telephones
These devices enable the manager to screen in-coming telephone calls without having to answer the telephone. They also provide for recording calls from any part of the globe. They are particularly useful in the absence of secretaries, in the case of too small an office to accommodate both the manager and the secretary, and if the manager is not available. One advantage is that orders can be received at night, to be checked in the morning. In fact, more time becomes available for receiving orders, consequently saving time for important office tasks. The recording allows the manager to listen to in-coming calls, so no important ones will be missed. Besides, the price is paid once.
The mobile telephone has the special feature of sending or receiving calls anywhere in the world. It can also function as a telephone directory and an answer-machine. It allows the manager to perform tasks anywhere, which saves his time.
184.108.40.206 The Internet & Electronic Mail
The internet and electronic mail are among the most important modern vehicles for performing tasks over long distances and in a very short time. Not only does the internet provide for acquisition of information from anywhere at anytime, but it is also used for trading. Buying and selling transactions are performed on line. How saving of time can the internet be depends on the speed and competence with which the manager can handle it.
As part of the internet, the electronic mail tremendously speeds up communication of messages and documents in various languages. It is reinforced by the production of a great deal of modern software, which facilitates communication with a wide range of individuals at one time all over the globe. This boosts its use as a time saving device.
220.127.116.11 Electronic Calendars
Electronic calendars, of the pocket type, and on computers, keep detailed records of appointments, scheduled activities and priority tasks as well as other information needed by the manager. Some of the advantages of electronic calendars are:
1- organizing appointments
2- reminding of appointments by giving audio or visual signals
3- keeping brief records in their memories
4- functioning as a mobile telephone
Furthermore, an electronic calendar can be connected with a PC or laptop by telephone. In the case of an organization’s network, this gives the manager access to personnel calendars for meeting purposes.
5.1.2 Non-Electronic Means
Non-electronic means include such things as: secretaries; manual diaries for appointments; daily, weekly and monthly scheduled lists of tasks to be performed; the manger’s memory. Let us have a quick look at each.
A secretary’s job derives from that of the manager. Since the managerial function is to achieve objectives through others, the secretary or office director is to assist the manager to manage his time effectively towards those objectives. Therefore, secretary preparation has focused on competent training, particularly time management and organization of activities. As mentioned by Al-’Edaily, these duties are basic for secretarial effectiveness: 
1- receiving phone calls and visitors;
2- setting a concise filing system;
3- organizing appointments and meetings;
4- preparing drafts for memoranda and letters;
5- performing minor tasks delegated to him;
6- assisting the manager in organizing his tasks and reminding him of appointments;
7- maintaining, following up and updating files;
8- exercising common sense and taking the initiative in office-related matters.
18.104.22.168 Daily and Weekly Action Lists
Daily and weekly action lists include a number of commitments that the manager has to fulfil. On the lists are recorded certain projects and activities to be performed by the manager in one day or week. They are recorded in the order of priority and time in such a way that allows for ticking the accomplished tasks. Regarding the lists, the manager has to: (a) record the daily tasks to be performed; (b) making a realistic time estimate for each task; (c) take into account the meetings and appointments already fixed in relevant calendars.
22.214.171.124 Manager’s Manual Diary and Memory
In the manual diary, the manager records appointments, remarks, tasks and activities he is to perform during official working hours within a day, a week or a month. Such a diary is usually small enough to be carried all the time in all places. It contains a concise phone guide and identification cards for the manager. Through its hand-written content, it helps the manager remember the things to be done.
In extreme cases, the manager may depend solely on his personal memory to keep track of the things he is to do, without help from manual or electronic aids in organizing and managing required tasks. This demands an extremely strong memory and physical well-being on the part of the manager. However, dependence on memory alone gives rise to problems of forgetfulness, particularly in the case of overlap of tasks and time.
5.2 Effective Methods of Time Management
Since the manager’s time is limited, how can he utilize it effectively?
“With regard to the cause of development, it is considered an issue of time and productivity. Time should be viewed as a resource to be invested for the purpose of our peoples’ welfare. This is the responsibility of each and every one of us.”
What really matters is not mere spending of time, but the investment of time. Like capital, if time is just spent for the sake of spending, it is wasted. If it is invested, it will grow and come to fruition for us and for generations to come. Each manager should ask himself the following question first: Am I doing the right things? Only then, comes the question: Am I doing things the right way? In itself, sheer time is not the problem; the problem is how to invest time.
Crucially related to time investment are the two concepts of “efficiency’ and “effectiveness”. “Whereas efficiency means doing things right, effectiveness means doing the right things right.” The driving analogy shows the difference between the two concepts: “However fast one is driving his car southward, performance is judged as ineffective if the required direction is north.” This may explain why the American Society for the Evaluation of Engineers, attempting to distinguish between real work and being busy, and between efficiency and effectiveness, has adopted this motto: “Work smarter, not harder.” In other words, there is a distinction between performing tasks efficiently and performing the tasks required for the achievement of objectives.
Thus, in time management, the manager had better “concentrate on expected outcomes, rather than worry about procedures”.  In other words, he should “direct his attention to the target first, then to the context; perception first, then method; effectiveness first, then efficiency.” The manager who does that has taken the first step towards the successful management of his time. This leads to controlling and managing his time properly. In fact, optimal investment of time should result in: achievement of the organization’s objectives; more commitment to long-term and more important administrative issues; better development of managers’ skills and abilities; less worry, less pressure and less tension.
Thus, time management should be viewed as doing the right things properly, i. e. managing them effectively. The manager should focus on what is to be done, then on how fast to be done. For example, he should start with spending his time on establishing effective communication, instead of spending it on solving problems resulting from bad communication, which shows him doing busy work. Thus, effectiveness of time management can be defined as the manager’s achievement of his right objectives by means of optimal utilization of available resources.
Such a concept of time management has appeared in various forms in time management approaches due to differences in assumptions. According to relevant literature, there are eight different approaches, each of which has its own assumptions, value and contribution. They are the following:
5.2.1 The Organize-Yourself Approach 
This approach assumes that most management problems arise from chaos or absence of organization, e.g., the manager does not find something when he needs it. The logical solution lies in establishing organization in three dimensions:
[A] Organizing things
All things have to be put in order, such as door keys, computers, file shelves and office areas.
[B] Organizing Tasks
This involves giving orders and defining implementation steps by means of planning lists or maps, or even sophisticated computer planning programmes for project management.
[C] Organizing Personnel
This involves defining what the administrator and those working with him are capable of doing. Then, tasks are assigned to them accordingly. A system for performance follow-up has to be established so that the administrator can be in control.
A strong point of this approach is that organization saves time, costs and effort. For example, no time is wasted on searching or writing reports. It also provides for peace of mind and a more disciplined life style. However, obsession with organization can turn into an obstacle, a point of weakness. Instead of being a means to a more important end, organization may become an aim in itself. Also, more time can be spent on organization than on production. In practical terms, there will not be sufficient time for work, as it is being used for organizing things.
5.2.2 The Fighter’s Approach (Survival and Independence) 
Underlying this approach is the notion of preventing time wasting in order to create a state of concentration and achieve production. It assumes that all are surrounded by pressing demands from a crowded environment. Therefore, the fighter’s approach maintains that unless the manager responds firmly to such an attack on his time, the whole system will collapse. It recommends the following techniques:
Isolation calls for the establishment of protection system by means of a secretariat, locked doors, telephone answer-machines, etc.
Retreat involves moving to a distant environment, which guarantees isolation and provides for work independently and without interruption.
It demands the delegation of tasks to others so that more time can be available for more important work.
The strong feature of this approach is that time becomes a personal responsibility, and the manager will produce and innovate once he is in a quiet and uninterrupted environment.
However, this approach presumes that others are one’s enemies, who must be removed so that one can perform his tasks by means of isolation, retreat and barriers. This assumption is far from reality, for it ignores the fact that what the manager intends to achieve depends others. How can he secure their cooperation while retreating from them! Besides, being negative and defensive, this approach leads to introvert behaviour, which requires entire dependence on self, and self-satisfaction. In such a context, others feel they are isolated, so they will seek attention either by creating problems, or by working individually. This may take more of the manager’s time if he is to solve those problems. Thus, this approach ignores interdependence among all parties involved and how it affects the quality of life; this makes matters more complicated.
5.2.3 The Objectives Achievement Approach 
The motto of this approach is: define what you want achieved, then exert the effort to achieve it. The approach depends on techniques of planning and defining objectives, and self-motivation and dedication through a positive mental state.
Practical experience has shown that if organizations or individuals set for themselves clear objectives, they achieve better results. It has also shown that those capable of defining and achieving objectives realize their aspirations.
Evidently, there are people who adopt this approach in order to reach success, but they soon become disillusioned. For example, they set objectives and make the efforts to achieve them, only to discover that the outcomes are not what they have been dreaming of. Naturally, if objectives do not derive from basic principles and needs, neither the objectives nor their achievement can lead to a balanced type of life. Though those people may make a great deal of money, they may be leading a personal life of misery, void of humane relations and emotions.
5.2.4 The Step-by-Step Approach (Prioritisation and Defining Values) 
This approach is based on the objectives approach in addition to the principle of gradation and prioritisation. This principle refers to focusing on the most important tasks. This involves the use of several techniques, such as defining the value of the task and establishing priorities. Advocates of this approach maintain that you can do what you want, but not all what you want. Basically, if you know what you want, but focus first on the important part, you can manage your time effectively.
However, several of those top successful people say that they set targets, focus on them and set priorities, but, in the end, they do not get the expected outcomes. Thus, if objectives are not derived from realistic principles, one cannot reach the genuine outcomes conducive to quality life.
5.2.5 The Technological Equipment Approach 
This approach assumes that appropriate equipment (e.g. timetables, diaries and computer programmes) provides for best management. Such equipment ensures identification of priorities, organization of tasks and easy access to information. Systems and frameworks are basically considered factors contributing to equipment effectiveness. Apparently, effective use of equipment is greatly advantageous in achieving the following: establishing priorities, defining objectives, organizing tasks and fast systematic use of information.
The question arises: How many people use such equipment for time management properly? Calendars, for example, are bought only to become ornaments. Also, daily calendars and defined tasks are seen by some as restrictive and rigid. The fact is that unless technology is linked to full awareness of the importance of the task to be performed, it will deliver only some degree of improvement, but not full potential quality. For instance, an advanced camera can never make a successful photographer.
5.2.6 The Skills Approach 
Basic to this approach is the assumption that time management is a personal skill that requires mastery of the following skills: using calendars and appointment diaries; preparing task lists; defining objectives; delegation; organization; prioritisation.
This systematic approach is common, and it assumes that lack of the skills of planning, defining objectives and delegation has a negative impact on the organizing function. Therefore, a lot of organizations make use of educational aids for teaching their personnel those basics.
However, this approach has some weaknesses, the most important of which are reflected by the following questions:
[A] What are the basic patterns being taught?
[B] Is it based on sound principles?
[C] Does it hold unsound assumptions about effectiveness?
What matters more than equipment and systematisation is relating efficiency to genuine principles of time management. Without being linked with clearly defined outcomes, skills cannot satisfy the requirements of effective time management.
5.2.7 The Natural Flow Approach (Harmony and Natural Tuning) 
This approach has certain life and time assumptions that differ from those of the other approaches. Its philosophy derives from eastern cultures advocating internal self-concordance and harmony with nature, irrespective of pressures from our conditions. Thus, this approach represents a counter movement to traditional styles of time management. It can also be seen as some kind of withdrawal due to failure to use the other approaches.
The advocates of this approach seem to ignore that swimming against the tide instead of with it represents practice of management. Their approach lacks vision, outcomes, targets and balance, which are all important factors.
5.2.8 The Cure Approach (Self-Realization) 
This approach is concerned with the principles underlying behaviour. It aims at self-realization and, subsequently, self-improvement. It assumes that there are social and inherited factors that cause defeatist behaviour and lack of performance in time management.
However, this approach deals only with one aspect of time management problems. The administrator’s understanding of himself is only one aspect of effective change in time management.
In spite of the contributions of the previously mentioned approaches, they reflect a traditional concept of time. They do not view time as one of the factors of production. This explains why each of those approaches focuses on a particular aspect, rather than time management as a whole. In general, time management is concerned with application to the whole management process. This consists of all managerial functions within the organizational structure, such as the functions of planning, organizing, directing and control as well as decision-making.
5.3 Towards a Better Approach to Effective Time Management
In the light of what has been said so far about approaches to time management and the status of time as an element of the management process, the present study’s concept of effective management will be investigated through integration of two things:
(a) the manager’s ability to perform the functions of the management process effectively;
(b) the manager’s ability to take positive measures to control time-wasters.
Since the term “management” has been frequently repeated, let us elaborate it further. Even though it includes several individuals in the organization, they are not equal in terms of duties and responsibilities on the one hand, or in terms of authority or decision-making on the other. In fact, management has commonly agreed upon levels: top management, middle management and lower management.
The common denominator of those levels is that their practice of management involves the functions of planning, organizing, directing and control as well as decision-making. However, the functions vary in terms of allocated time in accordance with the relevant level of management, as shown in Table 4:
Proportionate Allocation of Time Allocated to
Management Functions at each level of Management 
??????????? Take care!
Planning Planning Planning
Control & Guidance Control & Guidance Control & Guidance
Organizing Organizing Organizing
Lower management Middle management Top management
Since the two functions of planning and organizing occupy most of the managers’ time at the top and middle levels, the present study investigates the managers of those two levels. In his article “Time Is the Manager’s Dilemma”, Charles Ferderber emphasizes the functions of planning and organizing by saying: “Bad planning and bad organizing give the wrong impression that time is short and insufficient.”
Thus, the study of time, as one of the sources available to organizations, requires good planning and organizing. It has to be conducted on manifest scientific principles so that time can be effectively and properly invested. Besides, “Theoretical and field studies have shown how varied managers are in the allocation of time to their activities due to varied management levels. The studies have identified certain major activities that occupy a long period of the manager’s time, for he has to mange them effectively in order to achieve effective management of his time. Those activities involve the management of personal and telephone interruptions, meetings, correspondence, and the work place.”
In view of the previous discussion, the approach recommended by the present study for effective time management embodies the following:
 Planning: (a) defining objectives, and establishing priorities; (b) allocating time according to priorities; (c) analysing time.
 Organizing: (a) delegation of authority and duties; (b) organizing and arranging tasks.
 Decision-Making, as the function typical of the top and middle management levels.
 Managing telephone and personal interruptions.
 Managing meetings.
 Managing the work place.
 Al-Edaili, Nasser Mohamed: Time Management, Riyadh, 1994, p. 101.
العديلي، ناصر محمد، إدارة الوقت، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1415هـ -1994م، ص 101.
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, in Arabic, Dar Majdalaawi, Amman, 1991, p.
أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م، ص 13.
 Temp, Dale: Time Management, an Arabic Translation by Waleed Huana, 1991, p. 123.
تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت. ترجمة وليد هوانه، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1991م، ص 123.
 Covey, Stephen: Managing Priorities: First Things First, Translated by Sayyid Metwally Hassan, Riyadh, Jareer Bookstore, 1998, p. 28.
كوفي، ستيفن، إدارة الأولويات: الأهم أولاً، ترجمة سيّد متولي حسن، مكتبة جرير، الرياض، 1998م، ص 28 بتصرّف.
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, op. cit., p. 26.
أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 26.
 Temp, Dale: Time Management, op. cit. , p. 560 تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص560
 Covey, Stephen: Managing Priorities: First Things First, op. cit. , p. 305.
كوفي، ستيفن، إدارة الأولويات: الأهم أولاً، مرجع سابق، ص 305.
 Ibid. , p. 479 المرجع نفسه، ص479
 Ibid. , p. 480 المرجع نفسه، ص480
 Ibid. , p. 483 المرجع نفسه، ص483
 Ibid. , p. 484 المرجع نفسه، ص484
 Ibid. , p. 486 المرجع نفسه، ص486
 Ibid. , p. 488 المرجع نفسه، ص488
 Ibid. , p. 490 المرجع نفسه، ص490
 Ibid. , p. 491 المرجع نفسه، ص491
 Mursi, Nabeel Mohamed, Business Management, Alexandria, Alexandria Book Centre, 1998, p. 44.
مرسي، نبيل محمد، إدارة الأعمال، مركز الإسكندرية للكتاب، الإسكندرية، 1998م، ص 44.
 Temp, Dale: Time Management, an Arabic Translation by Waleed Huana, 1991, p. 75. .
تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 75.
 Salama, S. Ben-Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, in Arabic, Amman, Arab Organization for Administrative Sciences, Administration of Research and Studies1988, p. 99.
سلامة، سهيل فهد، إدارة الوقت: منهج متطور للنجاح، المنظمة العربية للعلوم الإدارية، إدارة البحوث والدراسات، عمان، 1988م، ص 99.
Field Studies on Time Management
Before discussing the field studies on time management and the rationale of the present study, let us first give a synopsis of the rapid development, structure and role of the private sector in Saudi Arabia.
“Since its establishment, the Kingdom has adopted the system of free economy, deriving from adherence to Islamic teachings and long established traditions, which respect private ownership. Also, since taking planning as a means to achieving comprehensive economic development, the Kingdom has adopted the policy of supporting and developing the private sector. The importance of the private sector has been emphasized throughout the successive five development plans.”
“The sphere of the private sector encompasses the various aspects of economic activities for building the Saudi economy. In fact, there is rarely an economic or social activity in which the private sector does not play a role. It is involved in productive, commercial and services activities. It focuses mainly on the productive fields, particularly agriculture, industry, transportation and various productive activities. Yet, it has investments in housing and utility projects, public works projects, such as roads, water and sewerage networks and most activities in the field of construction. It is worth mentioning that investments in the field of construction represent a large portion of the investment in any single project. This is an indication of the private sector’s achievements. Education, health and social services also reflect the private sector’s role.
At the level of national commerce, the private sector plays a major role in meeting local needs, in the services field, such as storage, hotels and catering, and in the field of professions and trades.
The private sector also plays a role in international trade. For example, it is responsible for importing food products to satisfy local needs. It also imports middle-range and production goods required for development purposes. With respect to exporting, the private sector has been making steadily increasing efforts to improve production in the industrial, agricultural and mining fields, in addition to improving production. It also shares with the government the business of exporting petroleum and petrochemical products.
As for the private sector’s share in large-scale projects, most projects at all phases of construction used to be outside the private sector’s reach. However, the government’s current policies encourage investment by the private sector, jointly with the public sector, or through sale of government shares (all or some) to the private sector. Thus, the private sector has become a main partner of the government in most of the state projects.
In spite of being dominated by individual institutions, particularly in the trade and services, the private sector has a number of companies and joint stock companies. The latter are increasing in number, and so are the joint projects in that sector.
Thus, it can be safely concluded that the private sector includes various types of projects. For example, there are individual projects, which are decreasing, and joint ones with the government. There are also various types of companies, e.g. the multinationals and the joint stock companies. 
According to economic indicators, “The rate of development is higher in the private sector than in other sectors, particularly the government sector.” Also, from previous studies on time management, the author has identified references to a problem facing Saudi managers in government agencies regarding effective investment of time. The indicators and references have prompted the author to investigate that very problem, but in the private sector, particularly as its role is developing in a way indicative of becoming the leading sector in the Saudi economy.
This chapter deals with two issues:
6.1 The Most Important Studies on Time Management
6.2 A Field Study on Time Management in the Private Industrial Sector in Saudi Arabia.
6.1 The Most Important Studies on Time Management
The present comprehensive concept of time management has received attention since the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. This section presents a number of significant studies on time management conducted in the Western and the Arab worlds.
6.1.1 Studies in the Western World
Evidently, early contributions to scientific inquiry into time management started in the West. The first scientific attempt to study time management was conducted by James McKay (1959), the author of Time Management. A famous quotation from that book, still being repeated, is: “A feeling of being short of time is very often a symptom of accumulating obsolescence of your knowledge and skills.”
In the early 1960’s, several researches, studies, articles and books were produced on time management. Concern with that topic increased substantially due to the economic, cultural and social developments, particularly the spectacular technological advances in the fields of communication and transportation. Besides other changes, it was also due to intensive investment in projects and the rise in production costs.
In her study, “Managers and Their Functions”, Mary Stewart  investigated how the British manager allocated his time. The study revealed that the major wasters of his time were lengthy meetings and telephone calls.
As mentioned earlier, in Chapter 4, Drucker  identified the following conditions as major wasters of time: “Meetings beyond reasonable limits; inadequate information and communication systems; unnecessary phone calls; reading newspapers and magazines; over-employment; bad management and inefficient organization; unexpected visits, hesitation in decision-making, fear of making mistakes, unsound delegation; wrong order of priorities, interruption during work; social interaction and entertainment within the organization; starting to implement tasks without prior thinking and planning, moving to a new task before accomplishing a present one; obsession with less important routine matters.”
In a joint study by Mackenzie and Richards, forty common time-wasters were identified in terms of management functions. 
As mentioned by Abu-Sheikhah, a survey titled “Control over Time”, conducted by the Hamilton Institute , revealed that interruptions ranked top of the wasters of managers’ time. Next came useless meetings, too many telephone calls and searching for information. Therefore, the situation has to be evaluated, and measures should be taken to stop wasting time on ineffective meetings, for instance by reducing their number. Also, telephone calls should be restricted, and a database should be made available to provide managers with information when needed.
There are several other contributions to the field of time management, such as those made by “Henry Mintsberg, in his book The Nature of Managerial Work, by Joseph Cooper (1962), Ross Webber (1972) and Jack Ferner (1980)”
6.1.2 Studies in the Arab World
In a number of Arab countries, studies have been carried out at the organization level. One study was done by Farid Muna (1982) on “The Arab Executive”.  It identified weakness of Arab executives regarding time management and utilization, particularly in the Gulf states, where managers did not care much about time when performing their functions.
The study also showed that Arab executives’ time was under pressure from such sources as:
[a] lack or misuse of technology, particularly in the fields of information and communication, and backward channels of communication within their organizations;
[b] social traditions that impede proper utilization of time;
[c] participation in social functions, as part of their duties towards society;
[d] centralization of authority on the one hand, and lack of delegation to the other hand;
[e] the open-door policy of dealing with personnel as well as clients in person.
Explaining why the Arab executives underrate time, Farid Muna’s study suggested the following causes: unawareness of the value of time; inappropriate life style; influence and social courtesies; excessive bureaucracy and centralization; personal relations as well as family connections among personnel on the one hand, and between them and clients and visitors on the other hand.
In his study on “Managerial Planning and Time”, Ribhy Al-Hassan (1982) discussed the importance of time for planning. He attributed the inability to manage time to lack of objectives, priorities, daily plans, and deadlines, and to competing priorities and performing too many tasks at one time. 
Attempting to contribute to managers’ awareness of the importance of time and how to organize and invest it properly, Mohamed Al-Qaryuti (1995) conducted a study titled “Time Management”. He recommended that management reduce communication procedures so that time, as a major resource, can be saved and invested in the best possible way. 
In a joint study, Nadir Abu Sheikhah and Mohamed Al-Qaryuti demonstrated that among the acute problems facing Arab managers in general, and Jordanian managers in particular, are the absence of a clearly defined philosophy of time and time wasting through mismanagement. The manager’s failure to utilize official work time properly can be attributed to being unaware of the value of time, having no clear idea about tasks and duties or being unable to establish priorities. Any or all of those conditions lead to wasting too much time on performing tasks of minor importance.
Abu Sheikhah’s and Al-Qaryuti’s study identified a correlation between the job characteristics of the Jordanian manager and his view of time. The higher the manager’s job level and category were, the nearer to the modern scientific view was his philosophy of time. That view regards time as one of the basic elements of production and a valuable resource to be invested in the achievement of defined objectives. However, the study found no correlation between the manager’s personal characteristics and his view of time or his ability to manage official work time. 
In Saudi Arabia, a number of studies on time management have been conducted at the level of government institutions. For instance, Mohamed Asfoor did a field study on some ministries and institutions for the purpose of identifying how the manager utilizes his official work time. According to the study results: 50% of the official work time of the Saudi employee was spent on dealing with official works; approximately 12% on official meetings; 10% on activities related to official work (e. g. telephone calls, personnel and works follow-up); only 4% on thinking and planning. 
In his study, titled “Productivity in the Government Sector”, conducted on a number of government sector personnel in Saudi Arabia, Mohamed Al-Ghaith (1990) found out that”57% of the study sample maintained that the time available to them was not sufficient for meeting the needs of work”.  He also identified a list of ten factors representing the major wasters of the time of the Saudi government managers. 
In 1987, Abdul-Aziz Malaekah conducteda study on managers, both Saudi and Western, working in various government institutions, particularly in Jeddah. The study aimed at identifying the importance and value of time and the conditions affecting it. The study results showed that 88% of the Saudi managers, and 100% of the Western managers stressed the importance of time and the need to utilize it effectively and productively. The study attributed the failure to utilize time properly to the following: unexpected visits; the open-door policy; holding meetings unnecessarily, and without prior organization; entertainment sessions; ineffective management styles; lack of delegation; lack of managerial efficiency; huge gaps and differences in terms of academic qualifications and experience among personnel at various levels, even at the same level. 
In 1997, Ali Al-Qarni conducted a field study on Saudi managers in government institutions in Riyadh. The study investigated the managers’ attitudes toward time (importance and amount), and their abilities to manage the official work time. It attempted to test a number of hypotheses and relation between the variables of job characteristics and the manager’s personal characteristics and the manager’s attitude toward time as well as his ability to manage it. It also attempted to test the relation between each of the job characteristics and the personal characteristics with the variable of allocating official work time. According to the study results, job and personal characteristics had no impact on the manager’s attitude toward time. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the manager’s qualification and his attitude toward time. The study also identified a correlation between job characteristics and the manager’s ability to manage time. In addition, there was a correlation between the manager’s salary and his ability to manage time. 
Obviously, the afore-mentioned studies, both foreign and Arab, stressed the importance of how the manager allocated his time. They identified the major wasters of his time and his attitude toward time. They investigated the relations between a number of characteristics or variables and his attitude. Managers in government agencies were the focus of investigation.
6.2 A Field Study on Time Management in the Private Industrial Sector in Saudi Arabia
The researcher conducted this field study on the private industrial sector (private factories) in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The choice of that sector was based on the following:
 The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing ambitious and promising industrial development, to which all of us must contribute.
 Saudi industry is considered an essential source of national income, for, by Allah’s Grace, it is full of various natural resources, which represents the base for industrial development.
 In its current phase of development, the Saudi industrial sector needs all sorts of efforts and studies necessary for facing international competition.
 Having two industrial areas, Riyadh represents an important industrial base in Saudi Arabia.
According to the statistics of the Saudi Ministry of Industry,  the total number of factories in Riyadh till the month of Sha’ban, 1419 H. reached 824. Out of that number, the small factories, which had no more than 100 employees, were discarded. The big factories (197 factories), with over 100 employees, are shown in Table No. (1) according to type of activity.
Table No. (1)
Type of Activity Number of Factories Random Sample Number Number of Managers
1 Building material and glass products 34 10 38
2 Paper and printing products 11 8 34
3 Aluminum products 10 4 16
4 Fiber and leather products 14 6 28
5 Food products 23 8 43
6 Electrical equipment and tools 25 12 62
7 Wooden and metal furniture 23 15 69
8 Mineral industries 27 17 81
9 Plastic and chemical industries 30 14 79
Total 197 94 450
6.2.1 Study Results
This study is based on the premise that if time is wasted or is not invested, it represents a problem since it cannot be replaced, and that managers are aware that managing their time is a significant factor in increasing their productivity. Being a limited resource, time has to be properly managed and well utilized. In fact, most of the problems of managers’ low productivity are often attributed to such factors as: lack of clearly defined objectives; lack of daily work schemes, lack of establishing priorities for the required tasks; lack of organization on the part of the manager himself; interruptions and distractions at work; unplanned meetings; hasty decisions, or lack of decision-making.
The study put forward a number of questions, which can be summed up as follows:
 How does the Saudi manager in the Saudi industrial sector view the value of time?
 What are the wasters of the manager’s time?
 How effective is the Saudi manager in utilizing and investing his work time?
 What are the tools and means on which the Saudi manager rely in organizing and managing his work time?
 Are there any correlations between the variables of time value from the Saudi manager’s point of view and personality and job variables?
The theoretical part of the study highlighted the following points:
 Islam is concerned with time. This is verified by several statements from the Holy Qur’an and the purified Sunnah. Islamic teachings hold the individual Muslim entirely accountable for his time; it is a trust that should not be lost.
 Islam demands of the Muslim to grab the opportunities of this life and spare time, and not to waste them, for he will have to account for them on Judgment Day.
 Islam has laid foundations for many of the management functions (planning, organizing, directing, control and decision-making) in relation to time management. They are derived from statements from the Holy Qur’an, the purified Sunnah and the history of the Salaf.
 The Salaf were fully aware of the real value of time. This was a contributing factor to the flourishing and supremacy of Islamic civilization for centuries.
 A unique feature of Islamic management is that it is based on faith in Allah. Islam regards work as a trust to be properly looked after. Failure to do that is considered betrayal of that trust. Also, Islam instills in the individual Muslim self-control derived from his responsibility to Allah for all deeds. Good deeds deserve reward, and bad ones deserve punishment. Seeking Allah’s rewards and avoiding His punishment represent strong motives for perfecting tasks.
With respect to the fieldwork conducted on the Saudi private sector in Riyadh, the following results emerged:
 Most Saudi managers in the selected sample view time as an important source that must be invested into work. They value it highly, seek to invest it and try to put that into practice. The value of time was as high as 85. 8%. This result is consistent with Malaekah’s results (1991); 88% of the Saudi managers as well as 100% of Western managers, in government and private institutions in Jeddah, stressed the importance of time. The result is also near to that of Al-Qarni’s study on the Saudi manager in government institutions (1996); approximately 70% of managers considered time an important resource.
The study indicates rise in the value of time from the perspective of the Saudi manager in the industrial private Sector, compared to his counterpart in the government sector.
However, the results of the present study differ from those of the study conducted by Farid Muna (1981) on the Arab executive; Arab executives, particularly in the Gulf states, did not confer on time a high value when performing their tasks. The researcher explains the difference between the present study and Farid Muna’s in terms of the long period of time between both studies. The latter was conducted in 1981, whereas the former in 2000.
 The present study has identified major wasters of the time of the Saudi manager in the private industrial sector. It has also identified the practices that waste his time at work. Four sets of wasters have been identified:
1- Time-Wasters of Very High Significance
This set includes the following: lack of good organization of work;
not keeping files and papers in their proper places; lack of defined objectives and established priorities; lack of effective co-ordination; unexpected visits by friends, relatives and colleagues; lack of clear communication between the manager and his subordinates; lack of planning for work; lack of established deadlines for achieving objectives; lack of accurate information; late arrival at work in the morning.
2- Time-Wasters of High Significance
The second set includes the following time-wasters: getting things for the home during official work time; delay and procrastination; leaving work early; giving lifts to children during official work time; lack of delegation; reading papers and magazines at work; going to hospital during official work time; focusing on minor issues and routine procedures.
3- Time-Wasters of Average Significance This set includes: lengthy meetings; telephone interruptions; too much paper work; doing several things at one time.
4- Time-Wasters of Low Significance
The fourth set includes: tea and coffee breaks; insisting on seeing all details.
Comparison of the results of the present study with those of pervious studies on the wasters of the manager’s time in government institutions reveals that the present study relies a more comprehensive list of time-wasters (24 items).
For instance, the set of time-wasters of high significance, identified in the present study, is mainly concerned with basic functions, such as lack of proper organization of work, lack of planning, lack of effective co-ordination, lack of clear communication between the manager and his subordinates and unexpected visits. This set differs in quality from the time-wasters in government institutions, as revealed by the studies conducted by Asfoor (1980 and 1981). These studies dealt mainly with routine matters, such as tea and coffee drinking, late arrival at work in the morning, reading papers and magazines and private telephone calls.
 The present study shows that the Saudi manager in the private industrial sector cares about managing his time effectively. This effectiveness was measured by means of a model designed particularly for that purpose. Necessary analytical studies were done to establish the model’s validity and reliability. The model included six main dimensions, each of which represented an aspect of time management effectiveness. Regarding the Saudi manager, analysis of results revealed the following:
1- He was concerned with planning as part of the management process in a way that is harmonious with time management, and that does not waste his time.
2- 2. He emphasizes the role of the organizing function in effective time management through organizing work and proper delegation of authority.
3- 3. He is concerned with managing meetings for the purpose of investing and managing work time effectively.
4- He makes a great effort to prevent persistent work interruptions. This indicates how concerned he is with controlling private and telephone interruptions without going to extremes when managing and investing time.
5- He stresses sound management of the place of work so that time can be saved and properly invested in accomplishing the required tasks.
6- He is keen on taking proper and sound decisions, based on thorough investigation, but without wasting time or procrastination. Decision-making is vital for business organizations.
Even though the present study is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia, its results can be compared with those of Al-Ghaith’s study (1990) on issues causing the time of the Saudi manager in the government sector to be insufficient for fulfilling work needs. Both studies agree on the following as time-wasters: unexpected telephone calls; interruptions during work; lack of proper delegation of authority; bad organizing; misplacing things and papers.
 Regarding the Saudi manager’s personal characteristics and their impact on his attitude towards time, the present study results do not show any significant correlation between his valuation of time and his social status. However, the results show significant correlation between the manager’s age and his attitude towards time; the older the manager, the more valuable time is for him. They also show significant correlation between academic qualification and attitude towards time; the higher the manager’s qualification, the more valuable time is for him.
 Regarding job characteristics, the present study has shown no significant correlation between the Saudi manager’s valuation of time and a number of job characteristics (job title, type of activity sector, years of experience, how long he has worked in his factory and scope of supervision). In other words, these characteristics are not related to his attitude towards time.
 The present study has shown significant positive correlation between the Saudi manager’s valuation of time and his use of the means of time organizing and management.
The study has also identified the type of that relationship among various means of time organizing suggested by the researcher in the questionnaire distributed to the Saudi mangers. There is significant correlation between the manager’s valuation of time and each of the manual calendar, the electronic calendar, the daily list of tasks and the weekly list of scheduled tasks. However, no significant correlation has been found between the manager’s valuation of time and the rest of the means of organizing time, particularly the role of the secretary.
 The present study has identified major methods and means seen by the Saudi manager as important for organizing time. The photocopier ranked the highest means of organizing time, as it saves time. Next came the fax machine, followed by the daily list of scheduled required tasks. At the bottom comes the answer-machine telephone. The following table shows in a descending order the manager’s ranking of the means of organizing time according to importance.
Means of Organizing time Arithmetic Mean
1 photocopier 4. 067
2 fax machine 4. 060
3 daily list of scheduled tasks 3. 84
4 computer programs for task performance 3. 79
5 manual calendar for appointments 3. 59
6 weekly list for scheduled tasks 3. 44
7 personal diary 3. 36
8 great reliance on the secretary 3. 10
9 mobile telephone 3. 03
10 electronic mail 2. 65
11 the internet 2. 34
12 electronic diary for appointments 2. 23
13 scanner 2. 09
14 answer machine telephone 2. 02
In the light of those results, the study makes the following recommendations:
1- Islam is a perfect constitution for life. It provides for the creation of a unique Muslim personality. Therefore, Muslims must draw on it by reflecting on its main sources, the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the sayings of the Righteous Salaf. It is those very sources that Muslims have to consult when dealing with their practical affairs. For competent investigation of their economic, political administrative as well as other problems, they have to follow Islamic guidance. By so doing, they can enrich Islamic thought and practice.
2- It is imperative that Muslims, particularly those in higher positions, be fully aware of their duties towards time and how they are going to account for it on the Day of Judgment. This can be achieved by means of relevant courses and symposia.
3- Effective utilization of time is essential for continuity of business success. Therefore, greater effort has to be exerted to make the Saudi manager aware of and concerned with the value of time in this age, which is characterized by speed, modern information technology, successive technological advances, increasingly fierce international competition and globalization. This can be realized by educational means such as training courses, lectures and by academic studies that can enrich the Arab library and benefit those interested in time management. Crucial to such means is the notion that time is basically one of the production resources, and it has to be properly utilized and invested.
4- The present study demands that managers give up undesirable practices and behaviour that result in time wasting at work, such as personal visits, reading papers and magazines, telephone calls, fruitless lengthy meetings and obsession with details. This can be achieved by means of developing appropriate notions of time and work values and instilling love for work and appreciation of achievements and good performance.
5- Because of the identified correlation between the manger’s age and his attitude towards time, and consequently, his effectiveness of time management, age should be taken into consideration when selecting managers.
6- Also, academic qualifications should be taken into consideration when selecting managers because of the identified correlation between the manger’s academic qualification and his attitude towards time, and consequently, his effectiveness of time management.
7- Great emphasis should be laid on providing the Saudi manager with indispensable skills of time management, for they are crucial for effectiveness. This can be achieved by focusing on the importance of planning and organizing in management, as well as the importance of managing interruptions and organizing the work place; the aim is to establish a course of action beneficial to the manager in performing his tasks and managing his time effectively. When designing and developing programmes for Saudi managers, the practical dimensions of time management should be incorporated into the training content, particularly those considered by this study as beneficial in combating weaknesses of time management.
8- In organizing and managing time at work, the Saudi manager should make better use of other means available nowadays, such as secretaries, the internet, the electronic diary and electronic mail.
9- Further studies should be conducted on time management. They should investigate other variables not dealt with in this study. Suggested studies can deal with environmental variables and their impact. They can also investigate the relationship between time management and technology or modern information technology. Field studies can be extended to other areas in Saudi Arabia.
 The Eastern Province’s Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Proceedings of the Symposium on Privatization and its Impact on the Saudi Economy, Rajab, 1409 H. , p. 6.
الغرفة التجارية والصناعية للمنطقة الشرقية ، ندوة التخصيص وأثره في الاقتصاد السعودي، 9 رجب 1409 ، ص 6 .
 Chamber of Commerce and Industry: The Role of the Private Sector in the achievement of Development Goals, Riyadh, Rabi’ Aththani, 1407 H. , pp. 12-13.
الغرفة التجارية والصناعية، دور القطاع الخاص السعودي في خدمة أهداف التنمية، الرياض، ربيع الثاني، 1407هـ ، ص 12 – 13
 Ibid. , pp. 12-13.
الغرفة التجارية والصناعية، دور القطاع الخاص السعودي في خدمة أهداف التنمية، الرياض، ربيع الثاني، 1407هـ ، ص 12 – 13
 McCay, J., The Management of Time, Prentice Hall INC., N.J.,1995(first published in 1959),P. 19.
ملاحظة: صدرت أول طبعة من هذا الكتاب في عام 1959م كما ذكر في ص (xii) من نفس المرجع أعلاه.
 Stewart, R. M. , Managers and Their Jobs, McGraw Hill Co. , N. Y. : 1967, PP. 44-45.
 Peter Drucker was born in Vienna in 1909. He published his first article on the Economics of the World Bank in London in 1929. He settled in the U. S. , and worked for the British Banks Group. Then, he worked as an administrative consultant for one of the major leading American companies. Later, he worked as a professor of politics and philosophy at Benington University, then, as a professor of administration at New York University. He published a number of books and researches. (See: The Practice of Management, Butterworth, 1984. )
بيتر دركر: ولد في فيينا عام 1909م، نشر أول بحث له في اقتصاديات البنك الدولي بلندن عام 1929م، استقر به الحال في الولايات المتحدة وعمل في مجموعة البنوك البريطانية ثم استشاري إداري في أكبر الشركات الأمريكية الرائدة، ثم أستاذ السياسة والفلسفة بجامعة بننقتون، وأستاذ الإدارة بجامعة نيويورك ، له عدد من الكتب والبحوث المنشورة. انظر : (The Practice of Management, Butter worth, 1984. )
 Drucker, P. , The Effective Executive, N. Y. , Harper and Row, 1982, PP. 42 – 45.
 Temp, Dale: Time Management (Arabic translation by Waleed Hawanah), Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh, 1991, pp. 264-265.
انظر: تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت. ترجمة وليد هوانه، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1991م ، ص 264-265.
 Alexander Hamilton Institute, 1633 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 10019 U. S.
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, in Arabic, Dar Majdalawi, Amman, 1991, p. 136.
انظر: أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م، ص 136 .
 Salama, S. Ben-Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op. cit. , p. 21.
سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت: منهج متطور للنجاح، المنظمة العربية للعلوم الإدارية، إدارة البحوث والدراسات، عمان، 1988م، ص 21 . بتصرّف.
 Muna, Farid : The Arab Executive, St. Martin Press, N. Y. 1980.
 Al-Qarni, Ali Ibn-Saeed: Time Management, a Field Study on How the Saudi Manager in Government Institutions in Riyadh Utilizes his Time, a Master’s Dissertation, Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, 1996, p. 26.
القرني، علي بن سعيد، إدارة الوقت : دراسة ميدانية عن مدى استغلال المدير السعودي للوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، بمدينة الرياض، رسالة ماجستير، قسم الإدارة العامة، كلية العلوم الإدارية، جامعة الملك سعود، الرياض، 1996م، ص 26.
 Ibid. , p. 26 انظر : المرجع نفسه ص 26
 Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad and Al-Qaryuti, Mohamed:“Time Management in Jordanian Government Institutions”, The University of Jordan Human Sciences Journal, Vol. 20, 1993, pp. 119 – 120.
انظر : أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، القريوتي،محمد،إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية الأردنية، مجلة دراسات العلوم الإنسانية- الجامعة الأردنية، العدد الأول، المجلّد، 1993م، ص 119-120 .
 Asfure, M. Shakir:”How the Manager Spends his Official Work Time”, in Arabic, a paper presented at the Symposium on Productivity Obstacles in the Government Sector, Riyadh, Institute of Public Administration, 1400 H. , p. 8.
انظر: عصفور، محمد شاكر، كيفية إشغال المدير لوقت الدوام الرسمي، ندوة الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي ومعوقاتها، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1400هـ، ص 8 .
 Al-Ghaith, Mohamed Ibn Abdullah:”Productivity in the Government Sector, Concept, Obstacles and Methods and Means of Improvement”, Administrative Journal, Year 12, Issue No. 41, Muskat, Institute of Administration, June, p. 128
الغيث، محمد بن عبد الله، الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي: المفهوم والمعوقات ووسائل وطرق تحسين الإنتاجية، مجلة الإداري، س (12)، عدد (41) ، معهد الإدارة، مسقط، يونيو 1990م، ص 128 .
 Ibid. , p. 129 انظر : المرجع نفسه ، 129
 Malaekah, A. Mohamed: Time Management in Businesses in Saudi Arabia, in Arabic, Series of Publications by the Administration of Economic Research and Information, The Saudi Cairo Bank, Jeddah, 1991, pp. 147-148.
انظر: ملائكة، عبد العزيز محمد، إدارة الوقت في الأعمال بالمملكة العربية السعودية، بنك القاهرة السعودي، سلسلة إصدارات إدارة الأبحاث الاقتصادية والمعلومات ، جدة،1412هـ-1991م ص 147 -148.
 Al-Qarni, Ali Ibn-Saeed: Time Management, a Field Study on How the Saudi Manager in Government Institutions in Riyadh Utilizes his Time, op. cit.
انظر: القرني، علي بن سعيد، إدارة الوقت : دراسة ميدانية عن مدى استغلال المدير السعودي للوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، مرجع سابق. صفحة ج .
 Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Directory of the Riyadh Factories, 8th. edition, 1419 H.
الغرفة التجارية الصناعية، دليل مصانع الرياض، الرياض، ط8، 1419هـ·
· [A] The Glorious Qur’an
· [B] Qur’anic Studies
2. Arraazi, M.Fakhruddin: Mafateeh Al-Ghaib (Keys to the Unseen) in Arabic, Dar Al-Fikr, Beirut, 1994.
الرازي، محمد فخر الدين [544-604هـ]، مفاتيح الغيب، دار الفكر، بيروت،1414هـ – 1994م.
3. 40. Az_Zamakhshari, Abul-Qasim: Al-Kashshf ’an Haqaeq Ghawamidh At-Tanzeel wa ’Uyun Al-Aqaweel fi Wujuh At-Ta’weel (The Fact-Finder of the Mysteries of the Qur’an and of the Main Sayings on Aspects of Explanation), in Arabic, investigated by Mohamed A. Shaheen, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1995.
الزمخشري، أبو القاسم جار الله محمد بن عمر بن محمد [467 – 538]، الكشاف عن حقائق غوامض التنزيل وعيون الأقاويل في وجوه التأويل، تحقيق محمد عبد السلام شاهين، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1415هـ – 1995م، [1 – 4].
4. Assaabuni, M.A. and S.A.Ridha: Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, in Arabic, 1st. Edition, Alam Al-Kutub, Beirut, 1985.
الصابوني، محمد علي، و صالح أحمد رضا، مختصر تفسير الطبري، عالم الكتب، بيروت، ط1، 1415هـ – 1985م.
5. Al-Qurtubi, M. Ibn-Ahmad: A Comprehensive Book of Qur’anic Rulings [1-20], in Arabic, 3rd. ed. , The General Egyptian Agency for Books, the Centre for Investigation of Heritage, Cairo, 1987.
القرطبي، محمد بن أحمد [ت671 هـ]، الجامع لأحكام القرآن، الهيئة المصريّة العامّة للكتاب – مركز تحقيق التراث، ط 3، 1987م، [1 – 20].
· [C] Hadith Studies كتب السنّة وشروحها
6.20. Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman: Sunan Abi-Dawud, in Arabic, Index by Kamal Yusuf AL-Hut, Dar Al-Jinan, 1409 H.
أبو داود، سليمان بن الأشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، فهرسة كمال يوسف الحوت، دار الجنان، 1409هـ.
7. Al-Musili, Abu-Ya’la : Musnad Abu-Y’ala Al-Musili [1-13], in Arabic, investigated by H. Salim Assad, Dar Al-Ma’mun Litturath, Damascus, 1984.
الموصلي، أبو يعلى أحمد بن علي بن المثنى التميمي [210 – 307هـ]، مسند أبي يعلى الموصلي، تحقيق حسين سليم أسد، دار المأمون للتراث، دمشق، ط1، 1404هـ – 1984م، [1 – 13].
8. Al-Asbahani, Abu-Naeem: Musnad Al-Imam Abu-Haneefah (Abu-Haneefah’s Hadith Collection), in Arabic, investigated by N. M. Al-Faryabi, Maktabat Al-kawther, Riyadh, 1415 H.
الأصبهاني، أبو نعيم أحمد بن عبد الله [ت430هـ]، مسند الإمام أبي حنيفة، تحقيق نظر محمد الفاريابي، مكتبة الكوثر، الرياض، ط1، 1415هـ.
9. Al-Asbahani, Abu-Naeem: Hilyatul-Awliya’ wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiya’(The Pious Friends’ Ornaments and Classes of the Pure) in Arabic, investigated by Mustafa Abdul-Qadir Ata, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1418 H.
الأصبهاني، أبو نعيم أحمد بن عبد الله [ت430هـ]، حلية الأولياء وطبقات الأصفياء، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط1، 1418هـ. [1 – 12].
10.7. Ibn-Bilban, Emir Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, in Arabic, investigated by Shu’aib Al-Arna’ut, Mua’ssasat Ar-Risalah, Beirut, 1997.
ابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي[ت739هـ]، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1418 هـ – 1997م، [1 – 18].
11. Ibn-Hajar, A.A.Al-Asqalani: Fat-hulbari Fi Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari, in Arabic, investigated by F. Abdulbaqi and M. Al-Khateeb, Dar Al-Ma’rifah, Beirut, 1379 H.
ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني [773 – 852]، فتح الباري شرح صحيح البخاري، تحقيق فؤاد عبد الباقي ومحب الدين الخطيب، دار المعرفة، بيروت، 1379هـ.
12. Ibn-Majah, A.M.Y.Q.: Sunnan Ibn-Majah (Ibn-Majah’s Collection of Hadith), in Arabic, investigated by M. F. Abdul-Baaqi, Dar Ar-Rayyan Litturath.
ابن ماجه، أبو عبد الله محمد بن يزيد القزويني [207 – 275هـ]، سنن ابن ماجه، تحقيق محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي، دار الريان للتراث، دم، دت.
13. Al-Bukhari, M.I. : Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, in Arabic, investigated by Sameer Ameen Azzuhairy, Maktabat Al-Ma’arif, Riyadh, 1419 H. (1998 A. D. ), [1-2].
البخاري ، محمد بن إسماعيل ، الأدب المفرد ، تحقيق سمير الزهيري ، مكتبة المعارف ، الرياض ، 1419 هـ ـ 1998م . ، (1ـ2).
14. Al-Bukhari, M.I. : Sahih A-Bukhari, in Arabic, Bait Al-Afkaar Addawliyyah, 1998.
البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل [194 – 256هـ]، صحيح البخاري، اعتنى به أبو صهيب الكرمي، بيت الأفكار الدولية، 1419هـ – 1998م.
15. Al-Baihaqi, A.A.Ibn-Al-Hussein: Shu’ab Al-Iman (Branches of Faith), in Arabic, investigated by Mohamed. S. B. Zaghlul, Dar Al-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1410.
البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين [384 – 458هـ]، شعب الإيمان، تحقيق محمد السعيد بسيوني زغلول، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ [1 – 8].
16. Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa Mohammad Ibn-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, Arabic, Investigated by Ahmad Mohammad Shakir, Maktabat wa Matba’at Mustafa Al-Halabi, 2nd. Edition, 1398 H.
الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة [209 – 279 هـ]، سنن الترمذي، تحقيق أحمد محمد شاكر، مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى الحلبي، ط2، 1398هـ.
17. Al-Hakim, M.Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak ’Ala As-Sahihain, in Arabic, investigated by Mustafa A. Ata, Dar Al-Kutub Al-’Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990.
الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري [320 – 405هـ]، المستدرك على الصحيحين، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1411هـ – 1990م، [1 – 4].
18. Assindi, Abul-Hassan: Explanation of Sunan Ibn-Majah [1-4], in Arabic, investigated by Ma’Mun Shiha, Dar Al-Ma’rifah, Beirut, 1997.
السندي، أبو الحسن نور الدين محمد بن عبد الهادي [ت1138هـ]، شرح سنن ابن ماجه، تحقيق خليل مأمون شيحا، دار المعرفة، بيروت، 1418هـ – 1997م، [1 – 4].
19. Attabarani, Abul-Qasim: Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer (The Great Dictionary), in Arabic, investigated by Hamdy A. Assalafi, Maktabat Ibn-Taymiyah, Cairo, 1983.
الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد [260 – 360هـ]، المعجم الكبير، تحقيق حمدي بن عبد المجيد السلفي، مكتبة ابن تيمية، القاهرة، ط2، 1404هـ – 1983م، [1 – 25].
20. Attabrani, Abul-Qasim: Al-Mu’jam Al-Awsat (Intermediate Dictionary), in Arabic, investigated by Tariq Ibn-Awadallah and A. Al-Husseini, Dar Al-Haramain, Cairo, 1415 H.
الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد [260-360 هـ]، المعجم الأوسط، تحقيق طارق بن عوض الله وعبد المحسن الحسيني، دار الحرمين، القاهرة، 1415هـ [1 – 10].
21. Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, in Arabic, investigated by M.F.Abdul-Baqi, Arabic Book Revival House, Cairo.
القشيـري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري [206 – 261هـ]، صحيح مسلم، تحقيق محمــد فؤاد عبدالباقي، دار إحياء الكتـب العربية، القاهرة، دت.
22. Al-Mubarakafuri, M.Abdurrahman: Tuhfat Al-Ahwathi fi Sharh Jam’i At-Termidhi, (The Witty’s Explanation of At-Termidhi Collection), in Arabic, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1990.
المباركفوري، محمد عبد الرحمن، تحفة الأحوذي بشرح جامع الترمذي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ – 1990م، [1 – 10].
23. Al-Haithami, Ali Ibn Abi Bakr [807 H.]: Majma’ Azzawaed wa Manba’ Al-Fawaed [1-10], Dar Al-Kutub Al’lmiyyah, Beirut, 1408 H.
الهيثمي، علي بن أبي بكر [ت807هـ]، مجمع الزوائد ومنبع الفوائد، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1408هـ [1-10] .
· [D] Turath (Heriatage) Books
24. Ibn-Al-Jawzi, Abdurrahman Ibn-Ali Ibn-Mohamed Abul-Faraj: Great Personality Traits of the Emir of the Faithful, Umar Ibn-ul-Khattab, in Arabic, investigated by Zainab Ibraheem Al-Qaarut, Dar Al-Kutub al-’Ilmiyyah, Beirut.
ابن الجوزي، عبد الرحمن بن علي بن محمد أبو الفرج [510 – 597 هـ]، مناقب أمير المؤمنين عمر بن الخطاب، تحقيق زينب إبراهيم القاروط، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، دت.
25. Ibn-Al-Jawzi, Abdurrahman Ibn-Ali Ibn-Mohamed Abul-Faraj: Sifat Assafwah (Traits of the Elite), in Arabic, investigated by Ibraheem Ramadan and Saeed Al-Lahham, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1989.
ابن الجوزي، عبد الرحمن بن علي بن محمد أبو الفرج[510 – 597 هـ]، صفة الصفوة، تحقيق إبراهيم رمضان وسعيد اللحّام، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1409هـ – 1989م.
26. Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen:Tahtheeb Madarij As-Salikeen, in Arabic, investigated by A. S. Al-Ali, Mua’ssasat Ar-Risalah, Beirut, 1989.
ابن القيم شمس الدين ، أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية [ 691 – 751هـ ] ، تهذيب مدارج السالكين ، هذبه عبد المنعم صالح العلي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت ، ط3 ، 1409هـ – 1989م ، [1-2] .
27. Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Adda’ wa Addawa’ (Disease and Cure), in Arabic, investigated by Ali H.AlHalabi, Dar Ibn-AlJawzi, Riyadh, 1999.
ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية [691 – 751 هـ]، الداء والدواء، تحقيق علي بن حسن الحلبي، دار ابن الجوزي، الرياض، ط3، 1419هـ – 1999م.
28. Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Al-Fawaed (Benefits), in Arabic, investigated by B. M. Uyun, Maktabat Al-Mua’yyad, Taef, 1988.
ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية [691 – 751 هـ]، الفوائد، تحقيق بشير محمد عيون، مكتبة المؤيد، الطائف، ط2، 1408هـ – 1988م.
29.6. Ibn-Al-Mubarak, Abdullah: Azzuhd (Asceticism), in Arabic, investigated by Habeeburrahman Al-A’zami, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1998.
ابن المبارك، عبد الله بن المبارك بن واضح المروزي أبو عبد الله [118 – 181هـ]، الزهد، تحقيق حبيب الرحمن الأعظمي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1419هـ- 1998م.
30. Ibn-Taymiyah: Assiyasah Ash-Shar’iyyah (Legal Policy), in Arabic, Dar Al-Muslim, Riyadh, 1992.
ابن تيميّة، أحمد بن عبد الحليم [661 – 728هـ]، السياسة الشرعية، دار المسلم، الرياض، 1412هـ – 1992م.
31. Ibn-Hajar, A.A.Al-Asqalani: Lisan Al-Meezan (The Tongue Balance), in Arabic, investigated by Adel A. Abdul-Mawjud, dar Al_Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1996.
ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني [773 – 852هـ]، لسان الميزان، تحقيق عادل أحمد عبد الموجود وعلي محمد معوّض، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط1، 1416هـ – 1996م، [1 – 7].
32. Ibn-Hajar, A. A. Al-Asqalani: Taqreeb At-Tahtheeb (Simplifying Discipline), in Arabic, investigated by Mohamed Awwamah, Dar Ar-Rasheed, Syria, 1986.
ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني [773 – 852]، تقريب التهذيب، تحقيق محمد عوامة، دار الرشيد، سورية، 1406هـ – 1986م.
33. Ibn-Hanbal, Ahmad: Musnad Al-Imam Ahmad Ibn-Hanbal, Bait Al-Afkaar Addawliyyah, 1419 H. (1998 A.D.).
أبن حنبل، أحمد ابن حنبل الشيباني، مسند الامام أحمد ابن حنبل (164- 241 )، بيت الأفكار الدولية، 1419 هـ (1998م).
34. Ibn-Khamees, Abdullah: Ash-Shawarid (Wanderers), in Arabic, Al-Farazdaq Press, Riyadh, 1406 H.
ابن خميس، عبد الله محمد، الشوارد، مطابع الفرزدق، الرياض، ط2، 1406هـ .
35. Ibn-Khamees, Abdullah Mohamed: Questions and Answers on Poetry, Riyadh, 1986.
ابن خميس، عبد الله محمد، من القائل، أسئلة وأجوبة في الشعر، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1406هـ – 1986م.
36. Ibn-Saad, M.S.M.Al-Hashimi: At-Tabqat Al-Kubra (The Greater Classes), in Arabic, investigated by M.A.Ata, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1997.
ابن سعد، محمد بن سعد بن منيع الهاشمي، الطبقات الكبرى، تحقيق محمد عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط2، 1418هـ – 1997م، [1 – 8].
37. Abu-Abdul-Bar, Abu-Omar Al-Qurtubi: A Comprehensive Statement on knowledge and its Value, in Arabic, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut.
ابن عبد البر، أبو عمر يوسف بن عبد الله بن محمد بن عبد البر النمري القرطبي [368 – 463 هـ]، جامع بيان العلم وفضله، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، دت.
38. Ibn-Asakir, Abul-Qasim: The History of Damascus, in Arabic, investigated by Muhibbuddin Al-Amrawi, Dar Al-Fikr, Beirut, 1995.
ابن عساكر، أبو القاسم علي بن الحسن بن هبة الله، تاريخ دمشق، تحقيق محب الدين أبي سعيد عمر بن غرامة العمروي، دار الفكر، بيروت، 1415هـ – 1995م.
39. Al-Busti, A.Ibn-Mohamed Ibn-Al-Hussein: “A Poem on Government Title”, commentary by A. Abu-Ghaddah, Islamic Publications Office, Allepo (Halab), 1984.
البستي، علي بن محمد بن الحسين، قصيدة عنوان الحكم، ضبط وتعليق عبد الفتاح أبو غدة، مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية، حلب، ط1، 1404هـ – 1984م.
40. Ath-Thahabi, Shamsuddin Mohammad A.U.: Tathkirat Al-Huffath, in Arabic, Dar-Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah
الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ت748هـ [ ، تذكرة الحفاظ، دار الكتب العلمية.
41. Aththahabi, Shamsuddeen: Biographies of Noble Scholars, in Arabic, investigated by Shu’aib Al-Arna’ut and others, Mu’assasat Ar-Risalah, Beirut, 1409 H.
الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ت748هـ]، سير أعلام النبلاء، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط وآخرون، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط6، 1409هـ، [1 – 23].
42. Assyuti, Abulfadhl A.Ibn Abi Bakr [839-911]: Tabqaat Al-Huffaath, in Arabic, Dar Al-Kutub Al-’Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1403.
السيوطي، أبو الفضل عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر [849-911هـ]، طبقات الحفاظ، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1403هـ .
43. Shawqi, Ahmad: Ash-Shawqiyyat, a Collection of Verse in Arabic, Beirut, 1987.
شوقي، أحمد، الشوقيات، مكتبة التربية، بيروت، 1987م.
44. Al-Fayruz-Abadi, Mujduddin Mohamed Ibn-Ya’qub: Al-Qamus Al-Muheet, in Arabic, Mua’ssasat Ar-Risalah, Beirut, 1987.
الفيروز أبادي، مجد الدين محمد بن يعقوب [729 – 817 هـ]، القاموس المحيط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط2، 1407هـ – 1987م.
45. Al-Qurashi, Abdullah Ibn-Mohamed, The Best of Manners, in Arabic, investigated by Majdi Assayyid Ibraheem, Maktabat Al-Qur’an, Cairo, 1990.
القرشي، عبد الله بن محمد، مكارم الأخلاق، تحقيق مجدي السيد إبراهيم، مكتبة القرآن، القاهرة، 1411هـ – 1990م.
46. Al-Qurtubi, Abu-Omar: Pleasure and Entertainment of Assemblies, in Arabic, investigated by Mohamed M. Al-Khuli, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut.
القرطبي، أبو عمر يوسف بن عبد الله بن محمد بن عبد البر النمري [368-463 هـ]، بهجة المجَالس وأنس المُجَالس، تحقيق محمد مرسي الخولي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، دت.
47. Al-Qustanteeni, M. Ibn-Abdullah: Kashf Aththunun ‘An Asami Al-Kutub wal-Funun (Name-Finder of Books and Arts), in Arabic, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, Beirut, 1992.
القسطنطيني، مصطفى بن عبد الله [1017 – 1067هـ]، كشف الضنون عن أسامي الكتب والفنون، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1413هـ – 1992م، [1-2].
48. Al-Mazzi, Abu-Hajjaj Yusuf: Tahtheeb Al-Kamal fi Asma’ Arrijal, in Arabic, investigated by B. A. Ma’ruf, Muassasat Ar-Risalah, Beirut, 1992.
المزي، أبو الحجاج يوسف [654 – 742هـ]، تهذيب الكمال في أسماء الرجال، تحقيق بشار عواد معروف، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط4، 1413هـ – 1992م، [1 – 30].
49.57. Al-Minawi, Abdurra’uf: Faidh Al-Qadeer fi Sharh Al-Jami’ As-Sagheer, in Arabic, The Great Commercial Bookshop, Cairo, 1356 H.
المناوي، عبد الرؤوف [952 – 1031 هـ]، فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير، المكتبة التجارية الكبرى، مصر، ط1، 1356هـ، [1 – 6].
· [E] Time and Management Books
50. Abu-Sin, A. Ibrahim: Managemnent in Islam, Dar Al-Khreiji, Riyadh, 1417 H.
أبو سن، أحمد إبراهيم، الإدارة في الإسلام، دار الخريجي، الرياض، ط6، 1417هـ.
51. Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, in Arabic, Dar Majdalawi, Amman, 1991.
أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م.
52. Abu-Ghaddah, Abdulfattah: The Value of Time in the Eyes of Scholars, in Arabic, Maktabat Al-Matbu’at Al-Islamiyyah, Aleppo (Halab), 1996.
أبو غدة، عبد الفتاح، قيمة الزمن عند العلماء، مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية، حلب، ط7، 1417هـ – 1996م.
53. Al-Ahdab, Khuldun: Reflections on the Value of Time, in Arabic, Ad-Dar Ash-Shamiyyah, Beirut, 1993.
الأحدب، خلدون، سوانح وتأملات في قيمة الزمن، الدار الشامية، بيروت، 1414هـ – 1993م.
54. بدر ، أحمد ، أصول البحث العلمي ومناهجه ، وكالة المطبوعات ، الكويت ، ط8 ، 1986م.
55. Al-Bura’i, M.Abdullah: Principles of Management and Leadership in Islam, in Arabic, Al-Humaidhi Press, Riyadh, 1996.
البرعي، محمد عبد الله، مبادئ الإدارة والقيادة في الإسلام، مطابع الحميضي، الرياض، ط2، 1416هـ – 1996م.
56. Al-Bura’i, M.Abdullah & Abdeeen, A.Hamdi: Management in Islamic Heritage, in Arabic, Bookshop for Modern Services, Jeddah, 1987.
البرعي، محمد عبد الله، وعابدين، عدنان حمدي، الإدارة في التراث الإسلامي، مكتبة الخدمات الحديثة، جدة، 1408هـ – 1987م.
57. Al-Banna, F.Abdulbaasit: A Study in the Field of Islamic Administration and the Discipline of Public Administration, in Arabic, 1405 H.
البنا، فرناس عبد الباسط، التخطيط: دراسة في مجال الإدارة الإسلامية وعلم الإدارة العامة، دن، دم، ط1، 1405هـ.
58. Temp, Dale: Time Management (Arabic translation by Waleed Hawanah), Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh, 1991.
تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت. ترجمة وليد هوانه، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1991م. .
59. الخولي، سيد محمود، فاعلية إدارة الوقت واتخاذ القرارات الإدارية، مكتبة عين شمس، القاهرة، 1994م.
60. ديفز، كيث، السلوك الإنساني في العمل، ترجمة سيد عبد الرحمن مرسي ومحمد إسماعيل يوسف، دار نهضة مصر، القاهرة، 1974م.
61. الرفاعي، أحمد حسين، مناهج البحث العلمي: تطبيقات إدارية واقتصادية، دار وائل للنشر، عمّان، 1998م.
62. Salama, Suhail Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, in Arabic, Arab Organization for Administrative Sciences, Amman, 1988.
سلامة، سهيل فهد، إدارة الوقت: منهج متطور للنجاح، المنظمة العربية للعلوم الإدارية، إدارة البحوث والدراسات، عمان، 1988م.
63. سليمان، حنفي محمود، الإدارة: منهج شامل، دار الجامعة المصرية، الإسكندرية، 1978م.
64. Abdul-’Al, Sha’ban Jibreel: Time: More Precious than All Treasures on Earth, in Arabic, Dar Ibn- Khuzaimah, Riyadh, 1977.
عبد العال، شعبان جبريل، الوقت أغلى من كنوز الأرض، دار ابن خزيمة، الرياض، 1418هـ – 1997م.
65. عبد الوهاب، علي، مقدمة في الإدارة ، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض ، 1982م.
66. العديلي، ناصر محمد ، إدارة الوقت ، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1415هـ – 1994م.
67. Askar, Sameer Ahmad: Fundamentals of Management, in Arabic, Dar Al-Qalam, Dubai, 1987.
عسكر، سمير أحمد، أصول الإدارة، دار القلم، دبي، 1987م.
68. Asfure, M. Shakir: “Time Management in Government Agencies”, in Arabic, a paper presented at the Symposium on Official Working Time at Government Agencies, Riyadh, 1402.
عصفور، محمد شاكر، إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، ندوة الدوام الرسمي في الأجهزة الحكومية، الرياض، 1402هـ.
69. Asfure, M. Shakir: “How the Manager Spends his Official Work Time”, in Arabic, a paper presented at the Symposium on Productivity Obstacles in the Government Sector, Riyadh, Institute of Public Administration, 1400 H.
عصفور، محمد شاكر، كيفية إشغال المدير لوقت الدوام الرسمي، ندوة الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي ومعوقاتها، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1400هـ.
70. Aqeeli, Omar Wasfi: Management: Foundations, Principles and Concepts, in Arabic, Dar Zahran, Amman, 1997.
عقيلي، عمر وصفي، الإدارة أصول وأسس ومفاهيم، دار زهران، عمّان، 1997م.
71. Ali, M.Mohamed: Islamic Methods of Administration, Dar Al-I’tisaam, Cairo, 1980.
علي، مراد محمد، الأساليب الإدارية في الإسلام، دار الاعتصام، القاهرة، 1980م.
72. Chamber of Commerce and Industry: “The Role of the Private Sector in the achievement of Development Goals”, Riyadh, Rabi’ Aththani, 1407 H., pp. 12-13.
الغرفة التجارية والصناعية، دور القطاع الخاص السعودي في خدمة أهداف التنمية، الرياض، ربيع الثاني، 1407هـ.
73. The Eastern Province’s Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Proceedings of the Symposium on Privatization and its Impact on the Saudi Economy, Rajab, 1409 H.
الغرفة التجارية والصناعية للمنطقة الشرقية، ندوة التخصيص وأثره في الاقتصاد السعودي، 9 رجب 1409.
74. Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Directory of the Riyadh Factories, 8th. edition, 1419 H.
الغرفة التجارية الصناعية، دليل مصانع الرياض، الرياض، ط8، 1419هـ·
75. Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf: Time in the Muslim’s Life, in Arabic, Mua’ssat Arrisalah, Beirut, 1997.
القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط7، 1417هـ-1997م.
76. Al-Qarni, Ali Ibn-Saeed: Time Management, a Field Study on How the Saudi Manager in Government Institutions in Riyadh Utilizes his Time, a Master’s Dissertation, Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, 1996.
القرني، علي بن سعيد، إدارة الوقت: دراسة ميدانية عن مدى استغلال المدير السعودي للوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، بمدينة الرياض، رسالة ماجستير، قسم الإدارة العامة، كلية العلوم الإدارية، جامعة الملك سعود، الرياض، 1996م.
77. Covey, Stephen: Manging Priorities, Arabic translation by sayyid Mewally Hassan, Riyadh, Jareer Bookstore, 1998.
كوفي، ستيفن، إدارة الأولويات، ترجمة سيّد متولي حسن، مكتبة جرير، الرياض، 1998م.
78. Mursi, Nabeel Mohamed, Business Management, Alexandria, Alexandria Book Centre, 1998.
مرسي، نبيل محمد، إدارة الأعمال، مركز الإسكندرية للكتاب، الإسكندرية، 1998م.
79. Al-Mutawwi’, Jassim Mohamed: Time: Construction or Destruction, in Arabic, Dar Ad-Da’wah, Kuwait, 1992.
المطوع، جاسم محمد، الوقت عمار أو دمار، دار الدعوة، الكويت، ط6، 1412هـ – 1992م.
80. Al-Mutairi, H. Ibn-Matir: Islamic Administration: Thought and Practice, in Arabic, Riyadh, 1417H.
المطيـري، حــزام بن ماطـر بن عويـض، الإدارة الإسـلامية الـمنهج والممارسة، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1417هـ.
81. Malaekah, A. Mohamed: Time Management in Businesses in Saudi Arabia, in Arabic, The Saudi Cairo Bank, Jeddah, 1991.
ملائكة، عبد العزيز محمد، إدارة الوقت في الأعمال بالمملكة العربية السعودية، بنك القاهرة السعودي، سلسلة إصدارات إدارة الأبحاث الاقتصادية والمعلومات، جدة، 1412هـ-1991م.
82. Annahwi, A. Ali Ridha: Understanding Faith Management of the Islamic Call, in Arabic, Dar Annahwi for Publication and Distribution, Riyadh, 1999.
النحوي، عدنان علي رضا، فقه الإدارة الإيمانية في الدعوة الإسلامية، دار النحوي للنشر والتوزيع، ط1، الرياض، 1419هـ – 1999م.
83. Hashim, Haitham: Principles of Management, Khalid Ibn Alwaleed Press, Damascus, Damascus University, 1975.
هاشم، هيثم، مبادئ الإدارة، مطبعة خالد بن الوليد، جامعة دمشق، دمشق، 1975م.
84.70. Hilal, A.Hassan: Skills of Time Management, in Arabic, The Centre for Enhancing Performance and Development, Cairo, 1995.
هلال، عبد الغني حسن، مهارات إدارة الوقت، مركز تطوير الأداء والتنمية، القاهرة، 1995م.
85. الهواري، سيد محمود، مبادئ الإدارة، مكتبة عين شمس، القاهرة،1997م.
86.71. Watar, M. Dhahir: The Role of Time in Management, in Arabic, Al-Matba’ah Al-Ilmiyyah, Damascus.
وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، المطبعة العلمية، دمشق، دت.
· [F] Journals and Periodicals
87. Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad and Al-Qaryuti, Mohamed: “Time Management in Jordanian Government Institutions”, The University of Jordan Human Sciences Journal, Vol.20, 1993, pp. 119 – 120.
انظر : أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، القريوتي،محمد،إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية الأردنية، مجلة دراسات العلوم الإنسانية- الجامعة الأردنية، العدد الأول، المجلّد ، 1993م، ص 119-120 .
88. Al-Ghaith, Mohamed Ibn Abdullah: “Productivity in the Government Sector, Concept, Obstacles and Methods and Means of Improvement”, Administrative Journal, Year 12, Issue No. 41, Muskat, Institute of Administration, June, p. 128
الغيث، محمد بن عبد الله، الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي: المفهوم والمعوقات ووسائل وطرق تحسين الإنتاجية، مجلة الإداري، س (12)، عدد (41) ، معهد الإدارة، مسقط، يونيو 1990م، ص 128 .
89.53. Al-Mazjaji, A.Dawud: “Administrative Organization in Islam: Concept and Characteristics”, King Saud University Journal, Vol. 3, Administrative Sciences (1), 1991.
المزجاجي، أحمد داود، التنظيم الإداري في الإسلام: مفهومه وخصائصه، مجلة جامعة الملك سعود، مجلد (3)، العلوم الإدارية (1)، 1411هـ – 1991م.
· [G] English References
90. Bon and Gregory, Techniques of Marketing, Vuibert, Paris, 1986.
91. Clark, J. and Susan, How To Make The Most Of Your Work Day, N.Y: Career Press, 1994.
92. Drucker, P., The Effective Executive, N.Y. : Harper and Row, 1982.
93. Fayol, H., General And Industrial Management, N.Y: Pitman Pub. Co., Marshal: 1949
94. Helmer, P.E, Time Management for Engineers and Constructors, New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1991.
95. Mackenzie, R.A., New Time Management Methods, London: The Darnell Corporation, 1990.
96. Mackenzie, M., and A. Mackenzie, Investing Time For Maximum Return Iowa: American Media Publishing, 1997.
97. McCay, J., The Management of Time, Prentice Hall INC., N.J.: 1995.
98. Farid, Muna, The Arab Executive, St. Martin Press, N.Y., 1980.
99. Stewart, R.M., Managers And Their Jobs, McGraw Hill Co., N.Y.: 1967.
100. Taylor, F., Shop Management, Harper and Brothers, INC., N. Y.:1903.
101. Webster’s New World, College Dictionary, Macmillan, USA, 1997.
To Allah all praise is due. It is He that we ask for help and guidance. In Him we seek refuge from our own evil and bad deeds. None can mislead whomever He guides, nor can anyone guide whomever He misleads. I do testify that there is no god but Allah, alone without partners, and I do testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, who is the best model for organization and time management. May Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, his kin, his Companions and his followers till the Day of Reckoning.
Two major administrative requirements are efficiency and effectiveness. Both are advocated by Islamic teachings. The Muslim is required to conduct his entire affairs properly. In fact, the Muslim is called upon and encouraged to apply Islamic teachings thoroughly in both the theoretical and the practical arenas. In other words, activities in both arenas must not be done without being guided by those teachings. In this regard, Allah says in the Holy Qur’an, “162 Say: Lo! My worship and, my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the Worlds. “ The Muslim is also required to be a strong believer, equipped with faith and knowledge.
There is hardly any Qur’anic Sura, Sunnah or Companion’s biography that does not reflect administrative applications that does not provide guidance to effective utilization of resources, aptitudes and human potentials, that does not demand valuable qualities, such as patience, industriousness, non-capriciousness and self-discipline, or that does not call for good work, planning, organizing, guidance or control.
The Muslim has certain duties towards Allah, himself and society. They involve knowledge, work and acts of worship. Their proper discharge necessitates that each of them be allocated its due amount of time. No duty should encroach on the time allocated to other duties; otherwise, there may not be sufficient time to discharge any of them. Islamic teachings call for the proper investment and management of time, and so does modern administrative thought.
Time represents an extremely important resource in this life. If it is not effectively utilized, so much will be lost. Time lost will be difficult to make up for; once it passes, it never comes back.
Time is popularly described as gold. In fact, it is more valuable than gold, for it is priceless. In the field of business, time is counted among the basic five resources: materials, information, people, equipment and time. Of these resources, time occupies a special place; if properly managed, it can maximize the output of the other four. Also, at the personal level, one is said to be managing one’s time effectively if he is running his own life and activities effectively.
Thus, time is considered a common factor at the personal as well as the professional levels. Its value has been so widely recognized that it has become one of the subjects of study (time management) in the discipline of business administration.
This book is comprised of six chapters:
Chapter 1 presents a definition of time and demonstrates the importance of time in the Glorious Qur’an and the Purified Sunnah.
Chapter 2 discusses time and its management from an administrative perspective.
Chapter 3 deals with time management in the light of relevant statements from the Holy Qur’an and the Purified Sunnah and from the sayings of the Righteous Salaf (early Muslims, e.g. the Prophet’s Companions and those who followed in their footsteps).
Chapter 4 identifies the duties of the Muslim manager towards time and its proper management, and it identifies major time-wasters.
Chapter 5 deals with methods and equipment used in time management. It also presents the major approaches to effective time management, which evolve into an advanced approach to effective time management, while benefiting from field studies.
Chapter 6 is concerned with the applied aspect of time management as revealed by previous studies in the Arab world, particularly in Saudi Arabia, in addition to the field study conducted by the author in the private industrial sector in Saudi Arabia.
 Surat Al-An’am, Ayah 162.