Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives (4)

Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives

Part (4)

By: Dr. Wahid A. Al-Hindi, Professor of Public Administration, Chairperson of Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University

Chapter 4

Duties of the Muslim Manager Regarding Time

*     Introduction

Since organizations differ in the nature of work and style of management, it is less likely to have a general rule according to which the manager can allocate his time. In general, organizations can be described as systems for the required human effort that is scheduled in the light of their needs and goals. With respect to time management, there are a number of relevant facts: there are only 24 hours in the day; available time needs to be so properly managed and so well invested that the organization’s goals can be reached. Therefore, time-wasters have to be identified, and there has to be full awareness of what is to be done. By defining the Muslim manager’s responsibilities for time, maximum benefit can be gained from available time.

In this chapter, these responsibilities will be dealt with under two headings:

4.1 Time Wasters

4.2 The Muslim’s Duty Regarding Time

4.1 Time-wasters

This section attempts to answer these questions:

What is meant by time-wasters? In other words: What causes time wasting?

What are the positive measures for combating time wasters?

How can time wasters be controlled?

4.1.1 Major Time-wasters

Currently, time-wasters represent a basic problem facing the management systems of all organizations by obstructing the achievement of defined objectives, which require effective utilization of time.

Time-wasters may seem too simple an issue to deal with, yet thorough investigation of the state of organizations reveals the difficulties and drawbacks resulting from time wasting. A comprehensive view of time-wasters demands consideration of the following points: [1] [2]

[1] Any unsuitable utilization of one’s time is a waste of time. For instance, if the manager spends his time on something less important while he could spend it on something more important – importance measured by contribution to objective achievement – he has wasted his time.

[2] On the one hand, time-wasters can be ignored. On the other hand, they can be controlled and replaced by productive activities. Therefore, the responsibility for that lies with the individual, for the key to time management is the management of self. Unawareness of the problem does not mean it does not exist, and bad management of time renders the manager ineffective.

“Time-wasters can be put into two categories: external and internal. External time-wasters come from people, such as family and clients, or from things, as in the case of reading and writing letters, memos and reports. Internal time-wasters come from within and are difficult to eliminate. They include procrastination, meetings, inadequate planning, and the inability to say ‘No’, etc.”[3]

This study adopts Mackenzie’s [4] definition of time-wasters; they embody “anything that prevents the manager from achieving objectives in the most effective way possible.”[5] Mackenzie identifies 35 time-wasters across the major administrative activities, as shown in the following chart:

Chart 2: Mackenzie’s Time Trap

Source: Salama’s Time Management:

A Developed Approach for Success, page 47.

Planning

Absence of objectives

Absence of priorities

Prolonging priorities

Leaving an activity unfinished

Urgent administrative problems

No set deadlines

Trying to achieve too much at one time

Organizing

Absence of personal organizing

Performing a task more than once

Undefined authority and responsibilities

More than one superior for one employee

Employment

Employees’ problems

Untrained or unsuitable employees

Over-qualification or Under-qualification

Implementation

Desire to perform task alone

Involvement with routine work

Ineffective delegation

Low motivation

Lack of co-ordination

Inability to settle disputes

Unawareness of change

Control

Repeated interruption, unexpected visits and calls

Absence of control standards

Uncontrolled supervision

Ineffective management

The manager’s inability to say “No”

Communication

Meetings

Unclear horizontal-vertical communication

Misunderstanding

Desire for entertainment and chatting

Decision-Making

Postponement

Trivial decisions

Lack of facts

Group decisions

Total of Time-Wasters: 35

Review of relevant literature reveals that several studies have investigated the conditions that waste managers’ time. In Management and Time Management (1978), on time-wasters, Harrison mentioned 25 factors responsible for wasting the manager’s time. Of those wasters are: “bad supervision, no delegation of authority, lengthy meetings, unexpected visits, excessive phone calls, reading newspapers and magazines and attending to less important activities.”[6]

According to Drucker, time wasting conditions are: “Meetings beyond reasonable limits; inadequate information and communication systems; unnecessary phone calls; reading newspapers and magazines; over-employment; bad management and inefficient organization; unexpected visits, hesitation in decision-making, fear of making mistakes, unsound delegation; wrong order of priorities, interruption during work; social interaction and entertainment within the organization; starting to implement tasks without prior thinking and planning, moving to a new task before accomplishing a present one; obsession with less important routine matters.”[7]

“Within this framework, Drucker conducted an experiment on four groups of managers in order to find out the major causes of time wasting. He asked each group to record what they believed to be the wasters of time at work. Then, he showed them a film called ‘Time Management’. The film was about a manager who did not manage his time properly. After the film, he asked the groups to record what they believed to be the causes of time wasting at work. Drucker examined the causes put forward by each group before and after watching the film. There was a clear difference between what the first group suggested before and after watching the film. Whereas the earlier suggestions focused on external causes of time wasting, the latter ones focused on internal causes, arising from the individual.

The experiment was also conducted on another group of top-level managers. It reached the following results:

As maintained by the top-level managers before watching the film, Time Management, time-wasters were: inadequate information; employees’ problems; lack of delegation; phone calls and personal interruptions; meetings; no defined priorities; management by crisis; personal concern with others; personal activities; poor communication system; mistakes.

After they watched the film, the top-level managers attributed time wasting to: trying to do too many things at one time; unrealistic estimation of time, procrastination; poor organization; bad listening; insisting on doing things personally; inability to say ‘No’; not letting others implement some tasks; delegating responsibilities without authority; hasty decisions; personal activities. [8]

When asked in an interview about the most important wasters of managers’ time, Mackenzie mentioned them in the order of importance: “interruption by phone calls; repeated re-scheduling of tasks; clerical work; offices crowded with paper; unexpected visitors; meetings; incomplete information; crises; exhaustion; attempting to do too much at one time; reading; crises within one team; excessive involvement with work.”[9]

One of the field studies done in the Arab World is that by ’Usfure in Saudi Arabia. It discusses, among other things, time-wasters in government agencies. It identifies the following as the most important time-wasters [10]: late arrival at work in the morning; private phone calls; reading work-related magazines; drinking tea and coffee; going to hospital; leaving work early; others.

In his study “Productivity in the Public Sector”, Al-Ghaith listed ten causes identified by a group of managers working in Saudi Arabia as the most important time-wasters: “unqualified employees; unexpected visits; red tape; work interruption; misplacement of things, such as files, etc.; non-compliance with official working hours; too many telephone calls; lack of proper delegation of authority; reliance on memory rather than on planning and follow-up; poor organization of work.”[11]

4.1.2 Time-Wasters: Analysis and Solutions

Analysis of time-wasters and defining positive counter-measures require commitment on the part of the manager. They also require genuine knowledge of himself, his nature and his job as well as the ability and determination to proceed towards effective time management.

Since the human element is the most important production resource, successful investment of human effort is the real key to the achievement of defined objectives. Also, organizing the relationship between personnel and time is one of the most important functions of enlightened management, seeking distinction of performance. This requires the formulation of comprehensive systems for defining duties, tasks and communication so as to avoid the afore-mentioned time-wasters.

This section explores possible solutions for time-wasters so that time can be saved and effectively invested. Analysis of time-wasters demands: “identification of their sources in order to formulate appropriate solutions for eliminating wasters of managers’ time.”[12]

Through conducting observations and studies on the symptoms of time wasting during task performance, a number of direct and indirect time-wasters can be identified. Then, appropriate measures can be taken to combat those wasters and realize effective management.

Evidently, all managers encounter time management problems, which vary in seriousness and urgency, from organization to organization and from society to society. However, all those problems have to be analysed, time wasters have to be identified, and measures for combating and controlling them taken.

In what follows are presented five basic steps comprising the approach suggested for combating time-wasters [13] :

1- Collection of Data

Understanding time-wasters requires collection of relevant data. Recognizing that visitors represent a problem is not enough. Their number has to be identified, and so do the reasons and conditions of the visits.

2- Identification of Possible Causes

Probable causes of identified time-wasters have to be defined. In this respect relevant questions are to be asked, such as: Is it the manager himself? Is it other personnel? Is it the environment? If it is the manager, how is he wasting the workers’ time and his? Is it, for example, through habits? Is it his behaviour and style of management?

3- Suggesting Possible Solutions

This step requires dealing with each time-waster on its own and formulating appropriate solutions for it. The manager can seek help from his colleagues and subordinates to create solutions. One way of suggesting solutions is by holding brain-storming [14] sessions. Such solutions can be developed into applicable ones suitable for combating time-wasters.

4- Selection of a Potential Solution

In this step, the suggested solutions are evaluated in order to select the best and most effective one.

5- Implementation of the Selected Solution

Once selected, the potential solution is to be implemented, and evaluation of implementation conducted in order to assess how suitable and effective it is. If evaluation reveals persistence of identified problem, the basic steps have to be repeated.

Thus, thorough analysis of the manager’s activities represents the best starting point in tackling time-wasters. Also, accurate definition of objectives is crucial for combating wasters. It is in terms of objectives that activities are investigated to decide whether time is being wasted.

The whole process does not aim at eliminating the activities that waste the manager’s time, but to control them. The manager’s time, according to theoretical and field studies, generally has a variety of daily activities, planned and unplanned, such as interviews, phone calls, meetings, verbal and non-verbal communication, besides the usual office work. If those activities are not done in a proper and balanced way by means of good planning and execution, they become time-wasters representing ineffective time management.

However, some researchers insist on specific activities, without undermining others, as potential sources of time wasting for a number of reasons, the most important of which are [15] :

1- The manager spends a large amount of time on those activities.

2- The time allocated to each of them is generally misused, so it elapses with hardly any productivity.

3- Those activities are done by so many managers at all levels.

4- They are of a comprehensive nature and include secondary activities. For example, a meeting can be used for taking a decision, and the phone for co-ordination purposes.

5- Time mismanagement has economic implications. It leads to rise of production costs. Therefore, the more time is allocated to those activities, the higher the costs. 

The manager can control time-wasters through the following:

[1] Dividing time into: (a) controllable time, which the manager can control; (b) uncontrollable time, which is for reacting to immediate events and demands. The effective manager should be able to increase the portion of controllable time, which, according to some expert estimates, can reach 75%. This can be achieved by simplifying tasks. For example, a specific time can be allocated for daily performance of a certain task, such as checking correspondence, receiving phone calls, immediate replies to correspondence. Also, a specific period of time could be allocated to visits, and so on and so forth.

[2] Concentration, as represented by clear definition of work in terms of aims strategies so that the type of required information can be defined, and priorities established. It is recommended that one task be done at a time. In the establishment of priorities, there three steps that have to be considered: arranging subjects in terms of arrival (early/late); degree of urgency (sooner/later); the degree of the subject’s contribution to the achieving of the organization’s goals.

In general, time has to be considered as investment. At the personal level and the level of realizing the aims of business, the best results should be achieved. [16] Among the things effective management of time depends on is the manager’s ability to take positive decisions for combating time-wasters. Therefore, unless time planning is accompanied by taking positive decisions to prevent wastage, it becomes meaningless. [17]

*     The Muslim’s Duty Regarding Time

Islam encourages Muslims to care for time, to utilize it and not to waste it.  Besides, it holds them responsible for their time. The Righteous Salaf were aware of that responsibility, so they acted accordingly. Describing their care for time, Hassan Al-Basry said, “I saw those people and how they were more careful about their time than about their Dirhams and Dinars [i. e. their money].”[18]

An important requirement for a Muslim’s life is to be careful about time, to invest it wisely and to benefit from it. In this regard, Ibn-ul-Qayyim says, “The highest, most worthy and most useful of reflection is what is intended for Allah and the Hereafter. There are various forms of reflection intended for Allah. One of them is reflecting on time duty and function and focusing entirely on it, for the knowledgeable one is the breed of his time. If he wastes it, all his interests are wasted, for all interests arise from time. If he wastes his time, he can never regain it.”[19] Also, Imam Shafi’i said, “Out of my company with Sufis, I benefited only two things, one of which is their saying: like a sword, time will cut you if you do not cut it.…”[20] In other words, if you do not spend time doing something useful, you are the loser by wasting it. 

As expressed by Imam Hassan Al-Banna, “Time is life itself.”[21] This reflects Ibn-Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah’s saying: “One’s time is in fact his age. It is the material of his eternal life either in everlasting joy or painful torture. It passes more quickly than clouds do. It is only the time one dedicates to Allah that constitutes one’s real life and age. The rest does not count; the life he leads in it is only animal life. Compared to a life of indulgence in appetitive activities, false aspirations and negligence of Allah’s remembrance – and at best in sleep and being idle – death is a much better alternative.”[22]

Time is considered a vehicle for work. According to Ibn-ul-Qayyim, “The year is like a tree; months are its branches; days are the branch sticks; hours are its leaves; and the breaths are its fruits. Therefore, if one’s breaths are in obedience [to Allah and His Messenger], the fruits of his tree are good. If they are in disobedience, his fruits are bitter. The harvest is on the Appointed Day, when one’s fruits are found out to be good or bitter.”[23]

Such is the Islamic view of time, and such were the Salaf’s ways with it. The following are some of the most important duties demanded of Muslims.

1- Ensure Benefiting from Time

It is absolutely necessary for Muslims to be careful about time. The Muslim is required to utilize and invest his time in what benefits him in this world and the Hereafter. In this regard, he can follow the good example set by the Righteous Salaf. They were so careful that in less than a century they were able to make radical changes in the societies into which they introduced Islam. 

The Righteous Salaf made sure that no time, however short it was, passed without doing something useful, such as acquiring useful knowledge, doing good deeds, helping other Muslims and serving or advising the Ummah (nation). Remarking Imam Hammad Ibn-Salama Al-Basry’s [24] meticulous care for time, Musa Ibn-Ismaeel [25] said, “It is unbelievable! I have never seen Hammad laugh at all. He was always busy explaining the Hadith, praying, reading or praising the Lord. This is how he spent his day. Abdurrahman Al-Mahdi [26] said: If you were to tell Hammad, ‘You are going to die tomorrow’, there would be nothing he could add to what he is already doing.”[27]

Regretting the time he spent eating, Shumait Ibn-Ajlan [28] said, “By Allah, the time I hate most is that which I spend eating.”[29] How conscious of time!

Once a wise man said, “If you spend one day on other than carrying out justice, performing obligatory worship, achieving some gain, praising the Lord, establishing something good or acquiring knowledge, you have been ungrateful to your day and have wronged yourself.”[30]

2- Utilize Leisure Time

To be free from worry and distress is a great blessing, and to have a body free from diseases is a great blessing, too. However, they are the very blessings on which people are deceived.  The Prophet was reported to have said, “There are two blessings on which people are cheated: health and leisure time.”[31] This Hadith implies how people are unaware of the real value of health and leisure time; they are not properly invested in what is good for them in this world or the Hereafter. What a real loss!

Calling on Muslims to utilize their time, to benefit from it and not to waste it, the Prophet said, “On the Day of Resurrection the feet of the son of Adam [man] will not move away till he is questioned about four matters: how he spent his lifetime, how he spent his youth; from where he acquired his wealth and how he spent it, and what he did with his knowledge.”[32]

He also said, “Grab five things before five others: your youth before your decrepitude, your health before your illness, your wealth before your poverty, your leisure before your work, and your life before your death.”[33] This Hadith is a direct call on Muslims to invest their time as early as possible when conditions are favourable, i. e. youth, health, wealth and time before being handicapped by impediments, such as old age, sickness, poverty or preoccupation. 

The Righteous Salaf were extremely careful about occupying their time with useful deeds, and they hated laziness and unemployment. Umar Bin-Al-Khattab was reported to have said, “I do hate to see any of you unoccupied, [34] doing nothing for this world or the Hereafter.”[35]

On the authority of Ibn-Mas’ud, the Prophet said, “I do hate to see a man doing nothing for this world or the Hereafter.”[36]

Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradhawi says, “Leisure time will never remain unoccupied. It will be occupied with good or evil. If one does not occupy himself with truth, that self will make him occupied with falsehood. Successful is he who fills his time with what is good and righteous, and woe to him who fills it with evil and corruption.”[37]

3- Vie for Good Deeds 

Allah calls on Muslims to utilize time by racing for good deeds. He says,”(133) And vie one with another for forgiveness from your Lord,” [38] He also says,”(148) And each one hath a goal toward which he turneth; so vie with one another in good works. Wheresoever ye may be, Allah will bring you all together. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.…”[39]

This world is the place for work. It can be compared to a racetrack full of dust. On it are those running for their whims and earthly enjoyment, and those who run for the good of the afterlife, but without neglecting their share in this life. When the race is over and the dust settles down, the one who wronged himself (by neglecting the afterlife) will be extremely sorry. As expressed in Arabic by the poet Abul’atahiyah:

“If you haven’t sown, but a reaper you see, Remorse you feel for sowing missed.”[40]

The Righteous Salaf were fully aware of that fact. For example, Ali Ibn-Abi-Taalib said, “This world is departing, but the afterlife is arriving. Each of them has children. Be the children of the afterlife, not the children of this world. Today is only work, but no questioning, and tomorrow is questioning, but no work.”[41]

Muslims are warned against the worst two things that impede racing for good deeds, i. e. disability and laziness. These two cause delay and waste. The Prophet warned against them and taught his wife Aisha to pray for protection from them as he used to; he prayed:”O Allah, I seek refuge in You from disability and laziness.”[42]

The Muslim must race for doing whatever is good for this world and the Hereafter. He must not be a burden on others for a living. “A poor person who does not have a job to do is compared to the owl living in a deserted place and benefiting nobody.”[43]

4- Learn from the Passage of Time

No day passes without having so many lessons to be learnt by the Muslim who is keen on reflecting on the creation of the heavens and the earth and the difference of night and day.  About those people Allah says,”(190) Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and (in) the difference of night and day are tokens (of His sovereignty) for men of understanding.”[44]

On the Day of Judgment, days are a witness of man’s deeds since they constitute the time within which such deeds are carried out. In one Hadith the Prophet says, “No day starts without saying to man: ‘O son of Adam, I am a new creation, and in the future I will give witness on what you do within me. Do good and I will give (good) witness for you then.  Beware, once I pass, you will never see me again.’ The night says the same thing.”[45]

In his description of days as records, Ibn-ul-Jawzi said, “Days are the records of your deeds, so decorate them with the best of deeds. Opportunities pass like clouds, and it is only the slow that waste them. If one rides a disabled means of transport, it will not take him far, as slowness coupled with laziness will end in loss.”[46]

Man’s life on earth is in fact passing days and hours. As expressed by Al-Hassan Al-Basry, “O son of Adam (O man), you are only days; when a day passes, a part of you does, too.”[47] The same idea was expressed by Ahmad Shawki in this verse:

“Man’s heartbeats are telling him: Life’s but minutes and seconds.”[48]

How ironic! Man feels so happy to see days and months pass as his salary, vacation or graduation certificate is approaching. Yet, he is unaware of the fact that those passing months are not only being deducted off his age, but also bringing him nearer to the Hereafter. This idea is well represented by Abul-Atahiyah’s verse: “Happy are we to be days spending, yet, every day passing are our life ending.”[49]

Advising his son, Salih Ibn-Janah Allakhmi [50] said [51],”O my son, if a day and night passes without incurring loss regarding your faith, body or wealth; you must thank Allah a lot.  Think of those who lost faith or property, those who had their privacy violated and those who were destroyed that very day, while you are safe and sound. In this regard, let me say these verses:

“Were I to be granted my wish, I’d ask only forgiveness and health. How many a youth was one night in luxury, from it, the following night, he was taken.”

Let me also tell you: “Like daylight, this world is, Borrowed its light is. While your branch is growing, it is still soft and green. If, one day, time throws it, yellow it turns. So does night come, only to be by day erased.”

5- Seek the Favourable Times

There is no difference among people regarding their share of time. They all have equal shares, but they differ in how they manage, invest and benefit from them. 

Allah has designed and distributed time among his servants, yet He bestowed advantages to certain parts of it. For example, concerning acts of worship, Allah has allocated certain seasons, such as Ramadan and the first ten days of Thul-Hijjah, when rewards are multiplied.  Similarly, there are certain hours when one’s prayers can be more favourably answered than at other times, such as the last third of the night, Friday afternoons, breakfast time after fasting and the Night of Decree (Lailatul-Qadr), which is in Ramadan.

Hassan Al-Banna says, “Every day, you have a time in the morning, a time in the evening and a time before dawn when you can uplift your purified soul to the Heavens, and so gain the good of this world and the Hereafter. You have also seasons for showing obedience to the commands of your Lord, days for worship and nights for acts that bring you nearer to Him.  All these times have been pointed out to you by Allah’s Glorious Book and His great Messenger. Therefore, make sure to be among those remembering Allah, not those forgetting Him, and among those working, not those doing nothing, and you must utilize your time, for time is like the sword, and get rid of delaying tactics because there is nothing as harmful as they are.”[52]

Concerning this world and man’s work for his livelihood, Allah has blessed early rising for work purposes by making such raising a means of success. The Prophet prayed for Muslims saying, “O Lord, bless my nation’s early rising!”[53] Therefore, Muslims have to benefit from those appointed times as much as possible for this world and the Hereafter.

6- Planning and Organizing Time

Muslims are required to plan their time and establish priorities. This is crucial for investing time properly. The Righteous Salaf were aware of this requirement. For example, when Abu-Bakr was approaching death, he summoned Umar Ibn-Al-Khattab and entrusted him with the Caliphate after his death. Among the words of advice he said to Umar were: “Allah has morning rights that He does not accept at night, and has night rights He does not accept in the morning. Voluntary acts of worship are not accepted unless the compulsory ones are done.”[54]

This piece of advice had implications for Umar as Abu-Bakr’s successor. It implied necessary awareness of planning and organizing time, identifying objectives, establishing priorities in terms of importance and implementing tasks within allocated time. Such was Abu-Bakr’s awareness of the significance of time planning and investment that at his deathbed he had to advise Umar on it. As expressed by Al-Qaradhaawi in other words, “The important thing is not to do anything any time, but to do the right thing at the right time.”[55]

7- Fulfillment of Time Commitments

Islam urges Muslims to fulfill time commitments and promises. Commending believers for such a quality, Allah describes them by saying, “(8)… And who are shepherds of their pledge and their covenant….”[56] Addressing Musa (Moses), Allah says, “(40) Then comest thou (hither) by (My) providence, O Moses….”[57] This is explained as a reference to carrying out a task on time. In other words the verse means: Musa, you have come to Us at the right time when We want to send you on a mission to Pharaoh. [58]

Warning against delaying the fulfillment of promises, the Prophet said, “There are three qualities by which a hypocrite is recognized: if he speaks, he lies; if he promises, he goes back on his promise; and if he is entrusted with something, he betrays the trust.”[59] The Hadith indicates the seriousness of going back on promises, for it wastes people’s time, causes harm and creates mistrust. 

8- Necessary Awareness of Time Wasters

Islam has warned against wasting and not caring for time. It has set guidelines for preserving time. For instance, Muslims are called upon to ask for permission to enter places and see people. One must not enter someone else’s place without permission. In this respect, the Prophet said, “You can ask permission three times, but if you are not given permission, you have to leave.”[60] Allah says, “(27) O ye who believe! Enter not houses other than your own without first announcing your presence and invoking peace upon the folk thereof. That is better for you, that ye may be heedful. (28) And if ye find no one therein, still enter not until permission hath been given. And if it be said unto you: Go away again, and then go away, for it is purer for you. Allah knoweth what ye do.”[61] In addition to teaching good manners, these commands are a means to saving Muslims’ time from being wasted by unplanned visits.

Of the worst wasters of time are procrastination and wishful thinking. In this respect, Al-Hassan Al-Basry said, “Never has one prolonged false hopes without bad consequences. As rightly expressed by Al-Qurtubi: ‘Prolonged wishful thinking develops laziness, slowness and negligence; it makes one pretend to be working, and makes him steep low and follow his whims.’”[62] Warning against procrastination, he also said, “O man, beware of procrastination. It is today, not tomorrow, that must be your concern. If you have a tomorrow, make it your concern as you must make today. If you do not have a tomorrow, you will not regret not having wasted today.”[63]

These are some of the Righteous Salaf’s statements in this regard:

“Day and night are working on you, so you had better use them for your work [instead].”[64] “A sign of [Allah’s] wrath is to be wasting one’s time.”[65]

“If your today is like your yesterday, you must be a loser. If your today is more evil than your yesterday, you must be damned.”[66] Also, Abdullah Ibn-Mas’ud said, “Nothing is as regrettable as a day that passes without having increased my [good] deeds though having reduced my age.”[67]

As Ali Ibn-Muhammad Al-Busti [68] said:

“Should a day pass, yet with my hands nothing did I, Nor knowledge gained, of my life count not that day.”[69]

In a message to Yusuf Ibn-Asbaat [70], Muhammad Ibn-Samra Assa’ih [71] wrote: “O brother, beware of being controlled by procrastination, and do not let it occupy your heart, for it leads to boredom and loss, it destroys hopes, and it is a waste of life. O brother, therefore, take the initiative now, for you are a target for other initiatives; hurry up, for you are a target for speedy things to come; and be industrious, for living is a matter really serious.”[72]

Imam Ibn-Aqeel [73] said, “I am not allowed to waste an hour of my life. If my tongue is not engaged in some debate or study, and if my eyes are not engaged in reading, I work in bed till I have prepared something to write. I find that I am keener on learning in my eighties than when I was in my twenties.”[74]

The Qur’an warns those who waste their time and waste useful work opportunities; they are threatened with having to regret their inaction and to suffer its consequences on the Resurrection Day. On that Day, one of those people will typically say, “(24)… Ah, would that I had sent before me (some provision) for my life!”[75] They will be also asking in grief and regret, “(44)… Our Lord! Reprieve us for a little while. We will obey Thy call and will follow the messengers.…”[76] The answer will be, “Never!” The time for work, which must be done on earth, will have elapsed, and the Hereafter is only for judgment.

9- How Should a Muslim Spend His Time? [77]

For a Muslim to have his age blessed by Allah, he ought to follow an Islamic pattern of daily life. Such a pattern demands rising early and going to bed early. 

A Muslim’s day begins at dawn, at least before sunrise. Metaphorically speaking, he begins his day before it is polluted by the disobedient who do not wake up till much later in the day.  Thus, he is keen on having his day blessed in response to the Prophet’s prayers for early risers (“O Allah, bless my nation’s early rising.”) [78]

One of the worst things that have afflicted Muslims is that they have changed the pattern of their day; they stay up long during the night, and sleep into the day, and as a result miss the morning prayers. Some Righteous Salaf wondered how one should expect to be given of Allah’s bounty while he performs his morning prayers after the break of day.

In a Hadith reported by Abu-Hurayrah, the Prophet said, “Satan ties three knots at the back of your head when you sleep, and he seals the place of each knot with ‘You have a long night ahead, so sleep.’If you wake up and remember Allah, a knot is untied. If you wash for prayer, a knot is untied. If you pray, a knot is untied, and morning finds you lively and in good spirits, and if not, morning finds you in bad spirits and lazy.”[79] What a great difference between the two cases! In one case, a person is free from Satan’s fetters, active, good-spirited and ready for a good day’s work. In the other case, one is in Satan’s fetters, sleepy, lazy, slow and evil-spirited.     

Ideally, the Muslim opens his day with an act of obedience to Allah: he performs the morning prayers, compulsory and voluntary, and supplicates as the Prophet used to, as in: “We reached morning, and everything belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. O Allah, I ask You the good of today, its opening, victory, light, blessings and guidance, and I seek refuge in You from the evil it has and later evil.”[80] ‘O Allah! Whatever favour has come to me, is from You alone, and You have no partners. To You all praise is due and all thanksgiving,’ [81]

Then, he reads as much of the Qur’an as he can in submission, reflection and understanding, for Allah says, “(29) (This is) a Scripture that We have revealed unto thee, full of blessing, that they may ponder its revelations, and that men of understanding may reflect.”[82]

After he eats breakfast in moderation, he sets out for his daily work, earning a living.  He makes the effort to be doing some legal, useful work. However rich one might be, he could take a supervisory or control role, for – as the Arab proverb says – unsupervised money invites stealing. 

To be involved in usury is forbidden by Islam, for usury inevitably generates money, but without having to work, sharing or taking risks. A usurer is guaranteed a percentage on the money he lends without having to bear any responsibilities. This type of dealing is anti-Islamic. Islam considers man’s responsibility on earth to be work and construction. As Allah says, “(61)… He brought you forth from the earth and hath made you husband it.…”[83]

As one takes, so must one give. In return for what he consumes, he must produce. It is, therefore, unacceptable to be doing nothing, while living on others’ earnings, even if it is claimed to be for worship’s sake; there is no monasticism in Islam. 

Regarding unemployment, Ibn-Azzubair said, “The worst evil in the world is unemployment”[84] In other words, “If man does not have a job which is legally allowed, which keeps him engaged from within and which supports him in discharging his religious duties, he will be empty from without, but his heart will not be so; it will be filled with Satan and his offspring, which will reproduce much faster than animals. If one does not have a profession of benefit to people, he will be drawing from their gains, and consequently be a burden on them. In addition to being of no use to them, he becomes a source of trouble and inflation. That is why Umar used to say if he saw a handsome man, ‘Does he have a job?’ If the answer was negative, the man fell from his eyes.”[85]

The Muslim regards his earthly work as an act of worship and a kind of Jihad (struggle), provided that: it is intended for Allah’s sake; it does not keep one away from Allah’s remembrance; it is responsibly and properly done. In fact, proper execution of deeds is an Islamic requirement. According to Prophet Muhammad, “Allah has demanded that everything be perfect.”[86] In another Hadith, “Allah – blessings and exaltation be to Him – loves any of you, if he is doing something, to do it properly.”[87]

The Muslim has a duty towards his society. He is required to help others and facilitate things for them so that he can qualify for Allah’s reward. On the authority of Abu-Musa, the Prophet said, “Every Muslim has to give in charity.”The people asked, “O Allah’s Prophet! If someone has nothing to give, what will he do? “He said, “He should work with his hands and benefit himself and also give in charity (from what he earns).”The people further asked, “If he cannot find even that?” He replied, “He should help the needy who appeal for help.”Then the people asked, “If he cannot do that?” He replied, “Then he should perform good deeds and keep away from evil deeds and this will be regarded as charity.”[88]

Thus, the Muslim has to pay a daily social tax or charity. In fact, it is considered compulsory on every joint in the body every day. As a result, a Muslim becomes a continuously flowing spring of good, benefit and peace for every one and every thing around him. In a Hadith narrated by Abu-Hurayrah, the Prophet said, “Charity is obligatory every day on every joint of a human being. If one helps a person ride his animal or lift his luggage onto it, this is regarded as charity. A good word is charity, and every step one takes to pray in congregation is charity, and removing something harmful from the road is charity.”[89]

In the above Hadith, ‘joint’ refers to every part of the human body. It is a reminder of Allah’s blessings to man, whom He created in the best form. Therefore, he has to express gratitude to Allah for all His blessings by using those parts in His service, e.g. be useful to fellow humans and do as much good to them as possible.

When they call for the noon prayer, the Muslim does his best to pray in congregation. The sooner one offers prayers, the more pleasing to Allah, for He demands racing for good deeds.  Allah’s Messenger was so angry with those who missed the congregation that he wished he would set their houses on fire. This shows how important congregational prayer is. In fact, it gets a reward 27 times more than that of individual prayer.

Having performed the noon prayer, the Muslim has his lunch, which must be from the allowed types and good sources. Regarding eating, one should not eat too much, otherwise he gets indigestion, nor should he eat too little, otherwise he becomes deprived. As Allah commands us, “(31) O Children of Adam! Look to your adornment at every place of worship, and eat and drink, but be not prodigal. Lo! He loveth not the prodigals. (32) Say: Who hath forbidden the adornment of Allah which He hath brought forth for His bondmen, and the good things of His providing?”[90]

In hot countries, particularly in summer, some people may need some rest in the middle of the day so that they can wake up for extra prayers at night as well as for early rising. This is mentioned in the Qur’an: “(58)… and when ye lay aside your raiment for the heat of noon….”[91]

In the afternoon, as soon as they call for the Asr prayer, those resting get up and those working stop. This prayer is specially important as it is the middle prayer, and Muslims must not be distracted from it by buying, selling or entertainment. Positive response to prayer calls is typical of believers. In their description, Allah says, “(37) Men whom neither merchandise nor sale beguileth from remembrance of Allah and constancy in prayer and paying to the poor their due; who fear a day when hearts and eyeballs will be overturned ….”[92]

Muslims are encouraged not to delay the Asr prayer till the sun is about to set, for such delay indicates negligence of prayers, and is a sign typical of hypocrites. In a related Hadith, the Prophet says, “This is the hypocrite’s prayer; he waits till the sun comes between Satan’s horns, thence he hurriedly performs four Rak’as in which there is hardly any mention of Allah.”[93]

At sunset, the Muslim goes for the Maghrib (sunset) prayer early on, for there is a short period between it and the following prayer, the Isha prayer. Having performed the Maghrib prayer, the Muslim does supplication as the Prophet used to do. For example, he can say, “O Allah, this is Your night coming, and Your day going, and these are the voices of Your callers. Forgive my sins.”[94] There are other evening supplications, similar to the morning ones already mentioned; instead of saying ‘morning’, one says ‘evening’.

After the Muslim has his evening meal, which should be done in moderation, he offers the Isha prayer and voluntary prayers. The Watr (the single Rak’ah of the voluntary prayers) can be delayed if one is accustomed to waking up during the night, but if not, one should do it before going to bed. Some Muslims may prefer to have their evening meal after the Isha prayer.  However, for one reason or another, if the meal and the prayer coincide, the eating should be done first, otherwise one will be distracted during prayer. Before going to bed, the Muslim can also do some duties, such as visiting relatives and acquaintances and other social activities. 

The Muslim should do some reading daily so as to increase his knowledge, for the Prophet used to say, “(114)… and say: My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.”[95] For his reading one should select content beneficial for this world and the Hereafter. As wisely expressed, “Show me what you are reading, and I will tell you what kind of person you are.”

The Muslim can entertain himself by day or night, but with the type of fun that is islamically acceptable, i.e., it does not encroach on such duties as acts of worship, sleep, rest, family affairs, proper accomplishment of work and other people’s rights.



[1] Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen:   Tahtheeb Madarij Assaliheen, investigated by Abdul-Mun’im Salih Al-‘Ali, Beirut, Muassat Arrisalah,  1989,  Vol. 2, p. 776.

ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيم الجوزية [691 – 751هـ]، تهذيب مدارج السالكين، هذبه عبد المنعم صالح العلي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1409هـ – 1989م، ج2 ص 776.

[2] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad:   Time Management, in Arabic, Amman, Dar Majdalaawi, 1991, p. 132.

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م، ص 132.

[3] Ibid., pp. 137-138                                               أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 137-138

[4] A. Mackenzie, the president of an American company in New York, is well known for his enthusiasm for teaching and learning management and professional development. Among his publications are Time Trap, Managing your Time and New Time Management Methods. See:   Temp, Dale:   Time Management (Arabic translation by Waleed Hawanah), Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh, 1991, p. 93 and p. 175.

أليك ماكنزي:   رئيس مؤسسة ماكنزي وشركاه الموجودة في جرينوش بولاية نيويورك الأمريكية، وقد اشترك بحماسة في تشجيع المديرين الكبار في جميع أنحاء العالم على تعلم الإدارة وتعلم التنمية المهنية. ومن أشهر منشوراته:   مصيدة الوقت، إدارة وقتك، طرق جديدة في إدارة الوقت وغيرها. (تيمب، دايل،  إدارة الوقت، ترجمة وليد هوانه، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1991م، ص93، 175).

[5] Mackenzie, R. A.:    New Time Management Methods, London:   The Darnell Corporation, 1990. , P. 49.

[6] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad and Al-Qaryuti, Mohamed:   Time Management in Jordanian Government Institutions, op. cit., p. 106.

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، والقريوتي، محمد، إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية الأردنية، مرجع سابق، ص 106.

[7] Drucker, P., the Effective Executive, N. Y., Harper and Row, 1982. , PP. 42-45.

[8] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad:   Time Management, op. cit., pp. 183-184.

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 183-184.

[9] Temp, Dale:   Time Management, op. cit., pp. 494-495.

تيمب دايل، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص494-495.

[10] Asfure, M. Shakir:  “How the Manager Spends his Official Work Time”, in Arabic, a paper presented at the Symposium on Productivity Obstacles in the Government Sector, Riyadh, Institute of Public Administration, 1400, p. 11.

عصفور، محمد شاكر، كيفية إشغال المدير لوقت الدوام الرسمي، ندوة الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي ومعوقاتها، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1400هـ،  ص 11.

[11] Al-Ghaith, Mohamed Ibn Abdullah:  “Productivity in the Government Sector, Concept, Obstacles and Methods and Means of Improvement”, Administrative Journal, Year 12, Issue No. 41, Muskat, Institute of Administration, June, p. 129.

الغيث، محمد بن عبد الله، الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي:   المفهوم المعوقات وسائل وطرق تحسين الإنتاجية، مجلة الإداري، س (12)، عدد (41)، معهد الإدارة، مسقط، يونيو1990م، ص 129.

[12] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad:   Time Management, op. cit., p. 186.

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 186 بتصرّف.

[13] Ibid., pp. 139-140                  انظر: المرجع نفسه، ص 139-140

[14] Webster’s New World, College Dictionary, op. cit., p. 169. (Brain storming:   the unrestrained offering of ideas or suggestions by all members of acommittee, conference, etc. in an effort to find a solution to a problem, generates fresh ideas, etc.)

[15] Salama, S. Ben-Fahd:   Time Management, a Developing Approach to Success, op. cit., pp. 99-100.

انظر:    سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص 99-100

[16] Hilal, A. Hassan:   Skills of Time Management, in Arabic, Cairo, the Centre for Enhancing Performance and Development, 1995, pp. 56-57.

هلال، عبد الغني حسن، مهارات إدارة الوقت، مركز تطوير الأداء والتنمية، القاهرة، 1995م، ص 56- 57.

[17] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad:   Time Management, op. cit., p. 137.

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 137.

[18] Ibn-Al-Mubarak, Abdullah:   Azzuhd (Asceticism), op. cit., p. 51.

ابن المبارك، عبد الله بن المبارك بن واضح المروزي [118-181هـ]، الزهد، تحقيق حبيب الرحمن الأعظمي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1419هـ – 1998م،  ص51.

[19] Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Adda’ wa Addawa’ (Disease and Cure), investigated by Ali H. AlHalabi, 1999, pp. 238-239.

ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية [691 – 751 هـ]، الداء والدواء، تحقيق علي بن حسن الحلبي، دار ابن الجوزي، الرياض، ط3، 1419هـ-1999م،  ص 238-239.

[20] Ibid., p. 239                             المرجع نفسه، ص 239

[21] Al-Mutawwi’, Jassim Mohamed:   Time:   Construction or Destruction, in Arabic, 1992, Vol. 1, p. 99.

المطوع، جاسم محمد، الوقت عمار أو دمار، دار الدعوة، الكويت، ط6، 1412هـ – 1992م، ج1 ص 99.

[22] Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen: Adda’ wa Addawa’ (Disease and Cure), op. cit., p. 239.

ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية، الداء والدواء،  مرجع سابق، ص 239.

[23] Ibn-Al-Qayyim, Shamsuddeen:   Al-Fawaed (Benefits), investigated by B. M. Uyun, 1988, p. 292.

ابن القيم، شمس الدين أبو عبد الله محمد بن قيّم الجوزية [691 – 751 هـ]، الفوائد، تحقيق بشير محمد عيون، مكتبة المؤيد، الطائف، ط2، 1408هـ – 1988م، ص292.

[24] Aththahabi, Shamsuddeen [748 H.]:   Tathkirat Al-Huffath, footnotes by Sheikh Zakariyya Umairat, Beirut, Dar Al-Kutub Al-Ilmiyyah, 1998, Vol. 1, p. 151.

انظر:    الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ ت 748هـ ]،  تذكرة الحفاظ، وضع حواشيه الشيخ زكريا عميرات،  دار الكتب العلمية،  بيروت 1419هـ – 1998م،  ج1 ص 289.

[25] Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 289.

انظر: الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان،  تذكرة الحفاظ، مرجع سابق، ج1 ص 151.

[26] Abdurrahman Ibn-Mahdi Ibn-Hassan Ibn-Abdurrahman, a critic and an able reciter. He was considered a good model for knowledge and work.  See:   Aththahabi, Shamsuddeen:    Biographies of Noble Scholars, op. cit., Vol. 9, pp. 192-193.

عبد الرحمن بن مهدي بن حسّان بن عبد الرحمن الإمام الناقد المجوّد سيد الحفاظ أبو سعيد العنبري، ولد سنة 135هـ، وكان إماماً حجة قدوة في العلم والعمل. (الذهبي، محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ت748هـ]، سير أعلام النبلاء، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط ومأمون الصاغرجي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط6، 1409هـ، [1-23]،  ج9 ص 192-193.

[27] Al-Mazzi, Abu-Hajjaj Yusuf:   Tahtheeb Al-Kamal fi Asma’ Arrijal, in Arabic, investigated by B. A. Ma’ruf, 1992, Vol. 7, p. 265.

المزي، أبو الحجاج يوسف [654-742هـ]، تهذيب الكمال في أسماء الرجال، تحقيق بشار عواد معروف، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط4، 1413هـ – 1992م،   [1-30]، ج7 ص265.

[28] Al-Asbahani, Abu-Naeem:   Hilyatul-Awliya’wa Tabaqat Al-Asfiya’(The Pious Friends’ Ornaments and Classes of the Pure) in Arabic, investigated by Mustafa Abdul-Qadir Ata, 1418, Vol. 3, p. 149.

الأصبهاني، أبو نعيم أحمد بن عبد الله [ت430هـ]، حلية الأولياء وطبقات الأصفياء، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط1، 1418هـ،  [1-12]، ج3 ص 49.

[29] Ibid. , Narration No. 3509, Vo. 3, p. 151        المرجع نفسه، رقم الرواية (3509)، ج 3 ص 151

[30] Al-Minawi, Abdurra’uf:   Faidh Al-QadeerbSharh Al-Jami Assagheer op. cit., Vol. 6, P. 288.

المناوي، عبد الرؤوف [952 – 1031 هـ]، فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير، المكتبة التجارية الكبرى، مصر، ط1، 1356هـ، [1-6]، ج6 ص 288.

[31] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit., Book 81, Chapter 1, Hadith No. 6412, p. 1232.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل [194-256هـ]، صحيح البخاري، اعتنى به أبو صهيب الكرمي، بيت الأفكار الدولية، 1419هـ-1998م،  كتاب (81)، باب (1)، رقم الحديث (6412)، ص 1232.

[32] Attabarani, Abul-Qasim:   Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer (The Great Dictionary), Vol 20. Page 61. & Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa:   Sunnan Attermidhi, op. , cit. , Book No. 38, Chapter 1, Vol. 4, p. 612, Hadith No. 2417.

الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد [260-360هـ]، المعجم الكبير،  تحقيق حمدي بن عبد المجيد السلفي، مكتبة ابن تيمية، القاهرة، ط2، 1404هـ- 1983م، [1-25]، رقم الحديث (111)، ج20 ص61. والترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة،  سنن الترمذي،  تحقيق أحمد محمد شاكر، مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى الحلبي، ط2، 1398هـ، كتاب(38)، باب (1)، رقم الحديث (2417)، ج4 ص 612، وقال هذا حديث حسن صحيح.

[33] Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah:   Al-Mustadrak, op. cit., Book No. 44, Vol. 4, p. 341.

الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1411هـ – 1990م، [1-4]، كتاب (44)، رقم الحديث (7846)، ج4 ص 341، وقال: هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرّجاه. ووافقه الذهبي.

[34] Al-Fairuz-Abadi, Majduddin:   Al-Qamus Al-Muhit

تَهْلَلَ: اسم للباطل. انظر: (الفيروز أبادي، مجد الدين محمد بن يعقوب، القاموس المحيط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط2، 1407هـ – 1987م،  باب اللام، فصل الهاء، ص 1385.

[35] Azzamakhshari, Abul-Qasim:   Al-Kashshf ’an Haqaeq Ghawamidh At-Tanzeel wa’Uyun Al-Aqaweel fi Wujuh At-Ta’weel (The Fact-Finder of the Mysteries of the Qur’an and  of the Main Sayings on Aspects of Explanation), in Arabic, investigated by Mohamed A. Shaheen, 1995, Vol. 4, p. 761.

الزمخشري، أبو القاسم جار الله محمد بن عمر بن محمد [467-538]، الكشاف عن حقائق غوامض التنزيل وعيون الأقاويل في وجوه التأويل، تحقيق محمد عبد السلام شاهين، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1415هـ – 1995م، [1-4]، ج4 ص 761.

[36] Attabarani, Abul-Qasim:   Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer (The Great Dictionary), op. cit., Vol. 9. p.102.

الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد [260-360هـ]، المعجم الكبير،  تحقيق حمدي بن عبد المجيد السلفي، مكتبة ابن تيمية، القاهرة، ط2، 1404هـ – 1983م، [1-25]،  رقم الرواية (8538)، ج9 ص 102. والهيثمي، علي بن أبي بكر [ت807هـ]، مجمع الزوائد ومنبع الفوائد، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1408هـ، [1-10]، ج 4 ص 63.

[37] Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf:   Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit. , p. 15

القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط7، 1417هـ-1997م،  ص 15.

[38] Surat Ala-Imran, Verse 133                    سورة آل عمران الآية [133]

[39] Surat Al-Baqarah, Verse 148                       سورة البقرة الآية [148]

[40] Ibn-Khamees, Abdullah Mohamed:   Questions and Answers on Poetry, Vol. 3, p. 62.

ابن خميس، عبد الله محمد، من القائل: أسئلة وأجوبة في الشعر، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1406هـ – 1986م،  ج3 ص 62.

[41] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 81, Chapter 4, p. 1232.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (81)، باب (4)، ص 1233.

[42] Ibid. , Book 56, Chapter 25, Hadith No. 2823. , p. 545. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim:   Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 4, Book 48, Chapter 15, p. 2079, Hadith No. 2706.

المرجع نفسه،  كتاب (56)، باب (25)، رقم الحديث (2823)، ص 545. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري [206-261هـ]، صحيح مسلم، تحقيق محمد فؤاد عبدالباقي، دار إحياء الكتب العربية، القاهرة، دت،  كتاب (48)، باب (15)، رقم الحديث (2706)، ج4 ص2079.

[43] Al-Minawi, Abdurra’uf:   Faidh Al-Qadeer  fi Sharh Al-Jami Assagheer, op. cit. , Vol. 2, P. 291.

المناوي، عبد الرؤوف، فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير، المكتبة التجارية الكبرى، مصر، ط، 1356هـ، [1-6]،  ج 2 ص 291.

[44] Surat Ala-Imran, Verse 190                سورة آل عمران الآية [190]

[45] Al-Asbahani, Abu-Naeem:   op. cit. , Hadith No. 2501, Vol. 2, p. 344.

الأصبهاني، أبو نعيم أحمد بن عبد الله، حلية الأولياء وطبقات الأصفياء، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط1، 1418هـ، [1-12]،  رقم الحديث (2501)، ج2 ص344.

[46] Abdul-’Al, Sha’ban Jibreel:   Time:   More Precious than All Treasures on Earth, in Arabic, 1997, p. 25.

عبد العال، شعبان جبريل، الوقت أغلى من كنوز الأرض، دار ابن خزيمة، الرياض،   1418هـ- 1997م،   ص25.

[47] Aththahabi, Shamsuddeen:    Biographies of Noble Scholars, op. cit., Vol. 4, p. 585.

الذهبي، محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان [ت748هـ]، سير أعلام النبلاء، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط ومأمون الصاغرجي، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط6، 1409هـ، [1-23]، ج4 ص585.

[48] Shawqi, Ahmad:   Ash-Shawqiyyat, 1987, Vol. 3, p. 152.

شوقي، أحمد، الشوقيات، مكتبة التربية، بيروت، 1987م، ج3 ص 152.

[49] Ibn-Khamees, Abdullah Mohamed:   Man Al-Qael? (Questions and Answers on Poetry), op. cit. ,  Vol. 2, p. 190.

ابن خميس، عبد الله محمد، من القائل: أسئلة وأجوبة في الشعر، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1406هـ – 1986م، مج 2 ص 190.

[50] Salih Ibn-Janah Allakhmi was a poet, and was known for his wisdom; his sayings are beneficial.  See:   Ibn-Asakir, Abul-Qasim:   The History of Damascus, investigated by Muhibbuddin Al-Amrawi, 1995, Vol. 23, p. 325.

هو صالح بن جناح اللخمي الشاعر أحد الحكماء، كان ممن أدرك الأتباع بلا شك وكلامه مستفاد في الحكمة. انظر: (ابن عساكر، أبو القاسم علي بن الحسن بن هبة الله، تاريخ دمشق، تحقيق محب الدين أبي سعيد عمر بن غرامة العمروي، دار الفكر، بيروت، 1415هـ-1995م، ج23 ص325).

[51] Ibid. , Vol. 23, pp. 325-327         المرجع نفسه، ج23 ص325-327

[52] Abdul-’Al, Sha’ban Jibreel:   Time:   More Precious than All Treasures on Earth, op. cit. , pp. 31-32.

عبد العال، شعبان جبريل، الوقت أغلى من كنوز الأرض، دار ابن خزيمة، الرياض، 1418هـ – 1997م،  ص 31-32.

[53] Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman:   Sunan Abi-Dawud, Vol. 2, Book 9, Chapter 77, Hadith No. 2606, p. 41. & Ibn-Bilban, Alladin:   Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, op. cit. , Vol. 11, p. 62, Hadith No. 4754.

أبو داود، سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، فهرسة كمال يوسف الحوت، دار الجنان، 1409هـ، كتاب (9)،  باب (77) رقم الحديث (2606)، ج2 ص 41. وابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي [ت739هـ]، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1418هـ-1997م، [1-18]،  رقم الحديث (4754)،  ج11 ص 62.

[54] Ibn-Al-Jawzi, Abdurrahman Ibn-Ali Ibn-Mohamed Abul-Faraj:   Great Personality Traits of the Emir of the Faithful Umar Ibn-ul-Khattab, in Arabic, investigated by Zainab Ibraheem Al-Qaarut, pp. 56-57.

ابن الجوزي، عبد الرحمن بن علي بن محمد أبو الفرج [510 – 597 هـ]، مناقب أمير المؤمنين عمر بن الخطاب، تحقيق زينب إبراهيم القاروط، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، دت، ص 56-57.

[55] Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf:   Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit. , p. 21.

القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مرجع سابق، ص 21.

[56] Surat Al-Mu’minun, Verse 8                  سورة المؤمنون الآية [8]

[57] Surat Taha, Verse 40                                سورة طه الآية [40]

[58] Assaabuni, Mohamed Ali and Ridha, Salih Ahmad:   Attabari, Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, op. cit, Vol. 2, p. 50.

الصابوني، محمد علي،  ورضا، صالح أحمد، مختصر تفسير الطبري، عالم الكتب، ط1، 1415هـ- 1985م،  ج2 ص 50.

[59] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 2, Chapter 24, Hadith No. 33, p. 30. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim:   Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 1, Book 1, Chapter 25, p. 87, Hadith No. 59.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (2)، باب (24)، رقم الحديث (33)، ص 30. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح الإمام مسلم، مرجع سابق،  كتاب (1)، باب (25)، رقم الحديث (59)، ج1 ص 78.

[60] Al-Qushairi, Muslim:   Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 3, Book 38, Chapter 7, p. 1694, Hadith No. 2153.

القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (38)، باب (7)، رقم الحديث (2153)، ج3 ص 1694.

[61] Surat An-Nur, Verses 27-28                    سورة النور الآيات [27 – 28]

[62] Al-Qurtubi, M. Ibn-Ahmad: A Comprehensive Book of Qur’anic Rulings, op. cit. , Vol. 3, p. 3.

القرطبي، محمد بن أحمد، الجامع لأحكام القرآن، تحقيق عبد الرزاق المهدي،  دار الكتاب العربي،  بيروت،  ط3،  1421هـ – 2000م،  [ 1 – 20 ]،  ج10 ص3.

[63] Ibn-Al-Mubarak, Abdullah:   Azzuhd (Asceticism), op. cit., p. 51.

ابن المبارك، عبد الله بن المبارك بن واضح المروزي [118-181هـ]، الزهد، تحقيق حبيب الرحمن الأعظمي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1419هـ – 1998م،  ص51.

[64] Al-Qurashi, Abdullah Ibn-Mohamed, The Best of Manners, 1990, Vol. 1, p. 29.

القرشي، عبد الله بن محمد، مكارم الأخلاق،  تحقيق مجدي السيد إبراهيم، مكتبة القرآن، القاهرة، 1411هـ – 1990م، ج1 ص 29.

[65] Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf:   Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit. , p. 13

القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مرجع سابق، ص 13.

[66] Op. cit, p. 13                         المرجع نفسه، ص 13

[67] Ibid, p. 13                              المرجع نفسه، ص 13

[68] Abul-Fat-h Ali Ibn-Al-Hussein Al-Busti (330-400) was a poet, a writer, an excellent speaker and an authority on Fiqh. He was born in Bust, a town in Afghanistan.  He was a follower of the Shafi’i School of thought.

See:   Al-Busti, A. Ibn-Mohamed Ibn-Al-Hussein:  “A Poem on Government Title”, commentary by A. Abu-Ghaddah, Islamic Publications Office, Allepo (Halab), 1984.

أبو الفتح علي بن محمد بن الحسين البستي الشاعر الناثر والأديب الأريب والمحدّث الفاضل والفقيه الشافعي، ولد في مدينة بُسْت من بلاد أفغانستان في حدود سنة 330هـ وتوفي في عام 400هـ. انظر: (البستي، علي بن محمد ابن الحسين، قصيدة عنوان الحكم، ضبط وتعليق عبد الفتاح أبو غدة، مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية، حلب، ط1، 1404هـ-1984م، ص 7 ).

[69] Abu-Abdul-Bar, Abu-Omar Al-Qurtubi:   A Comprehensive Statement on knowledge and its Value, Vol. 1, p. 61.

ابن عبد البر، أبو عمر يوسف بن عبد الله بن محمد بن عبد البر النمري القرطبي [368-463 هـ]، جامع بيان العلم وفضله، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، دت، ج1 ص61.

[70] Yusuf Ibn-Asbaat Azzahid was known for his wise sayings and preaching. See:   Shamsuddeen Aththahabi’s Biographies of Noble Scholars, op. cit., Vol. 9, p. 169.

يوسف بن أسباط، الزاهد، من سادات المشايخ، له مواعظ وحِكم.  انظر:   (الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان، سير أعلام النبلاء، مرجع سابق، ج9 ص169).

[71] Mohamed Ibn-Samra Assaeh was one of those selected by Ibn-Al-Jawzi for his book Sifat Assafwah (Traits of The Elite).  See:   Ibn-Al-Jawzi, Abdurrahman Ibn-Ali Ibn-Mohamed Abul-Faraj:   Sifat Assafwah, investigated by Ibraheem Ramadan and Saeed Al-Lahham, 1989, Vol. 4. , pp. 201-202.

محمد بن سمرة السائح من الأصفياء الذين ذكرهم ابن الجوزي في كتابه صفة الصفوة. انظر:   (ابن الجوزي، عبد الرحمن بن علي بن محمد أبو الفرج [510 – 597 هـ]، صفة الصفوة، تحقيق إبراهيم رمضان وسعيد اللحّام، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1409هـ – 1989م، ج 4 ص 201 – 202).

[72] Ibn-Al-Jawzi, Abdurrahman Ibn-Ali Ibn-Mohamed Abul-Faraj:   Sifat Assafwah (Traits of The Elite), investigated by Ibraheem Ramadan and Saeed Al-Lahham, 1989, Vol. 4. , pp. 201-202.

ابن الجوزي، عبد الرحمن بن علي بن محمد أبو الفرج، صفة الصفوة، مرجع سابق، ج 4 ص 201 – 202.

[73] Ibn-Aqeel (431-513 H. ) was a follower of the Hanbali School of thought.  See:   Shamsuddeen Aththahabi’s Biographies of Noble Scholars, op. cit. , Vol. 19, p. 443.

ابن عقيل هو الإمام العلاّمة البحر شيخ الحنابلة أبو الوفاء علي بن عقيل بن محمد بن عقيل بن عبد الله البغدادي الظفري الحنبلي المتكلّم صاحب التصانيف، ولد سنة 431هـ وتوفي 513هـ. انظر: (الذهبي، شمس الدين محمد بن أحمد بن عثمان، سير أعلام النبلاء، مرجع سابق، ج19 ص443).

[74] Ibn-Hajar, A. A. Al-Asqalani:   Lisan Al-Meezan (The Tongue Balance), in Arabic, investigated by Adel A. Abdul-Mawjud, 1996, Vol. 4, p. 284.

ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني [773 – 852 هـ]، لسان الميزان، تحقيق عادل أحمد عبد الموجود وعلي محمد معوّض، دار الكتب العلميّة، بيروت، ط1، 1416هـ-1996م، [1-7]، ج 4 ص 284.

[75] Surat Al-Fajr, Verse 24                           سورة الفجر الآية [24]

[76] Surat Ibrahim, Verse 44                         سورة إبراهيم الآية [44]

[77] Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf:   Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit., pp. 25 – 31.

انظر:   القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مرجع سابق، ص 25-31. بتصرّف

[78] Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman:   Sunan Abi-Dawud, op. cit. , Vol. 2, Book 9, Chapter 77, Hadith No. 2606, p. 41. & Ibn-Bilban, Alladin:   Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, op. cit. , Vol. 11, p. 62, Hadith No. 4754.

أبو داود، سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، مرجع سابق، كتاب (9)، باب (77)، رقم الحديث (2606)، ج2 ص 41. وابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، مرجع سابق،  رقم الحديث (4754)،  ج11 ص 62.

[79] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit., Book 19, Chapter 22, Hadith No. 1142, p. 225. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim:   Sahih Muslim, op. cit, Vol. 1, Book 6, Chapter 28, p. 538, Hadith No. 776.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (19)، باب (12)، رقم الحديث (1142)، ص 225. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح الإمام مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب(6)، باب (28)، رقم الحديث (776)، ج1 ص 538.

[80] Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman: Sunan Abi-Dawud, op. cit. , Vol. 2, Book 35, Chapter 110, Hadith No. 5084, p. 743.

أبو داود،  سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، مرجع سابق، كتاب(35)، باب(110)، رقم الحديث(5084)، ج2 ص 743.

[81] Ibid. , Sunan Abi-Dawud, Book 35, Chapter 110, Hadith No. 5073, Vol. 2, p. 739. & Ibn-Bilban, Alladin:   Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, op. cit. , Vol. 3, p. 142, Hadith No. 861

المرجع نفسه، كتاب (35)، باب (110)، رقم الحديث (5073)، ج2ص 739. وابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي،  صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، مرجع سابق،  رقم الحديث (861)،  ج3 ص142.

[82] Surat Saad, Verse 29                         سورة ص الآية [29]

[83] Surat Hud, Verse 61                           سورة هود الآية [61]

[84] Al-Minawi, Abdurra’uf:   Faidh Al-Qadeer Sharh Al-Jami Assagheer, op. cit.  Vol. 2, P. 290.

المناوي، عبد الرؤوف، فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير، المكتبة التجارية الكبرى، مصر، ط، 1356هـ، [1-6]،  ج 2 ص 290.

[85] Ibid. , Vol. 2, p. 90                المرجع نفسه، ج 2 ص 290

[86] Al-Qushairi, Muslim:   Sahih Muslim, op. cit. , Vol. 3, Book 34, Chapter 11, p. 548, Hadith No. 1955.

القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (34)، باب(11)، رقم الحديث (1955)، ج3 ص 1548.

[87] Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein:   Branches of Faith, op. cit. , Vol. 2 4, Chapter 35,  Hadith No. 5312, p. 334. & Al-Musili, Abu-Ya’la:     Musnad Abu-Y’ala Al-Musili, 1st. ed. , Vol. 7, investigated by H. Salim Assad, 1984, Hadith No. 4386, p. 349.

البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين [384-458هـ]، شعب الإيمان،  تحقيق محمد السعيد بسيوني زغلول، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ [1-8]، الباب (35)، رقم الحديث (5312)، ج4 ص334. وأبويعلى، أحمد بن علي بن المثنى الموصلي [210-307هـ]، مسند أبي يعلى، تحقيق حسين سليم أسد، دار المأمون للتراث، دمشق، ط1، 1404هـ – 1984م، [1-13]،  رقم الحديث (4386)، ج7 ص349.

[88] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 78, Chapter 33, Hadith No. 6022, p. 1166. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim:   Sahih Muslim, op. cit. , Vol. 2, Book 12, Chapter 16, p. 699, Hadith No. 1008.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (78)، باب (33)، رقم الحديث(6022)، ص 1166. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (12)، باب (16)، رقم الحديث(1008)، ج2 ص 699.

[89] Ibid. , Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 56, Chapter 128, Hadith No. 2989, p. 573. & Al-Qushairi, Muslim:   Sahih Muslim, Vol. 2, Book 12, Chapter 16, p. 699, Hadith No. 1009.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (56)، باب (128)، رقم الحديث (2989)، ص 573. والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب(12)، باب(16)، رقم الحديث (1009)، ج2 ص 699.

[90] Surat Al-A’raf, Verses 31-32                               سورة الأعراف الآيات [31-32]

[91] Surat An-Nur, Verse 58                                                سورة النور الآية [58]

[92] Surat An-Nur, Verse 37                                                سورة النور الآية [37]

[93] Al-Qushairi, Muslim:   Sahih Muslim, Vol. 1, Book 5, Chapter 34, p. 434, Hadith No. 622.

القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (5)، باب (34)، رقم الحديث (622)، ج1 ص 434.

[94] Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman:   Sunan Abi-Dawud, Vol. 1, Book 39, Chapter 77, Hadith No. 530, p. 201. & Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah:   Al-Mustadrak, op. cit. , Book No. 44, Vol. 4, p. 341.

أبو داود،  سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، مرجع سابق، كتاب(2)، باب (39)، رقم الحديث (530)، ج1 ص 201. والحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1411هـ- 1990م، [1-4]، كتاب(44)، رقم الحديث(7846)، ج4 ص 341، وقال: هذا حديث صحيح ولم يخرّجاه، ووافقه الذهبي.

[95] Surat Taha, Verse 114                           سورة طه الآية [114]                    

 

 

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One comment on “Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives (4)

  1. mampro7 says:

    That so good!
    Allah Save You for this useful idea.
    pls go on and public them for who wants the religion for all aspects of life!
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    Mohammad Ali, From Iran

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