Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives (6-6)

Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives

By: Dr. Wahid A. Al-Hindi, Professor of Public Administration, Chairperson of Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University

Chapter (6)

Field Studies on Time Management

*     Introduction

Before discussing the field studies on time management and the rationale of the present study, let us first give a synopsis of the rapid development, structure and role of the private sector in Saudi Arabia.

“Since its establishment, the Kingdom has adopted the system of free economy, deriving from adherence to Islamic teachings and long established traditions, which respect private ownership. Also, since taking planning as a means to achieving comprehensive economic development, the Kingdom has adopted the policy of supporting and developing the private sector. The importance of the private sector has been emphasized throughout the successive five development plans.”[1]

“The sphere of the private sector encompasses the various aspects of economic activities for building the Saudi economy. In fact, there is rarely an economic or social activity in which the private sector does not play a role. It is involved in productive, commercial and services activities. It focuses mainly on the productive fields, particularly agriculture, industry, transportation and various productive activities. Yet, it has investments in housing and utility projects, public works projects, such as roads, water and sewerage networks and most activities in the field of construction. It is worth mentioning that investments in the field of construction represent a large portion of the investment in any single project. This is an indication of the private sector’s achievements. Education, health and social services also reflect the private sector’s role.

At the level of national commerce, the private sector plays a major role in meeting local needs, in the services field, such as storage, hotels and catering, and in the field of professions and trades.

The private sector also plays a role in international trade. For example, it is responsible for importing food products to satisfy local needs. It also imports middle-range and production goods required for development purposes. With respect to exporting, the private sector has been making steadily increasing efforts to improve production in the industrial, agricultural and mining fields, in addition to improving production. It also shares with the government the business of exporting petroleum and petrochemical products.

As for the private sector’s share in large-scale projects, most projects at all phases of construction used to be outside the private sector’s reach. However, the government’s current policies encourage investment by the private sector, jointly with the public sector, or through sale of government shares (all or some) to the private sector. Thus, the private sector has become a main partner of the government in most of the state projects.

In spite of being dominated by individual institutions, particularly in the trade and services, the private sector has a number of companies and joint stock companies. The latter are increasing in number, and so are the joint projects in that sector.

Thus, it can be safely concluded that the private sector includes various types of projects. For example, there are individual projects, which are decreasing, and joint ones with the government. There are also various types of companies, e.g. the multinationals and the joint stock companies. [2]

According to economic indicators, “The rate of development is higher in the private sector than in other sectors, particularly the government sector.”[3] Also, from previous studies on time management, the author has identified references to a problem facing Saudi managers in government agencies regarding effective investment of time. The indicators and references have prompted the author to investigate that very problem, but in the private sector, particularly as its role is developing in a way indicative of becoming the leading sector in the Saudi economy.

This chapter deals with two issues:

6.1 The Most Important Studies on Time Management

6.2 A Field Study on Time Management in the Private Industrial Sector in Saudi Arabia.

*     6.1 The Most Important Studies on Time Management

The present comprehensive concept of time management has received attention since the late 1950’s and early 1960’s. This section presents a number of significant studies on time management conducted in the Western and the Arab worlds.

6.1.1 Studies in the Western World

Evidently, early contributions to scientific inquiry into time management started in the West. The first scientific attempt to study time management was conducted by James McKay (1959), the author of Time Management. A famous quotation from that book, still being repeated, is: “A feeling of being short of time is very often a symptom of accumulating obsolescence of your knowledge and skills.”[4]

In the early 1960’s, several researches, studies, articles and books were produced on time management. Concern with that topic increased substantially due to the economic, cultural and social developments, particularly the spectacular technological advances in the fields of communication and transportation. Besides other changes, it was also due to intensive investment in projects and the rise in production costs.

In her study, “Managers and Their Functions”, Mary Stewart [5] investigated how the British manager allocated his time. The study revealed that the major wasters of his time were lengthy meetings and telephone calls.

As mentioned earlier, in Chapter 4, Drucker [6] identified the following conditions as major wasters of time: “Meetings beyond reasonable limits; inadequate information and communication systems; unnecessary phone calls; reading newspapers and magazines; over-employment; bad management and inefficient organization; unexpected visits, hesitation in decision-making, fear of making mistakes, unsound delegation; wrong order of priorities, interruption during work; social interaction and entertainment within the organization; starting to implement tasks without prior thinking and planning, moving to a new task before accomplishing a present one; obsession with less important routine matters.”[7]

In a joint study by Mackenzie and Richards, forty common time-wasters were identified in terms of management functions. [8]

As mentioned by Abu-Sheikhah, a survey titled “Control over Time”, conducted by the Hamilton Institute [9], revealed that interruptions ranked top of the wasters of managers’ time. Next came useless meetings, too many telephone calls and searching for information.[10] Therefore, the situation has to be evaluated, and measures should be taken to stop wasting time on ineffective meetings, for instance by reducing their number. Also, telephone calls should be restricted, and a database should be made available to provide managers with information when needed.

There are several other contributions to the field of time management, such as those made by “Henry Mintsberg, in his book The Nature of Managerial Work, by Joseph Cooper (1962),  Ross Webber (1972) and Jack Ferner (1980)”[11]

6.1.2 Studies in the Arab World

In a number of Arab countries, studies have been carried out at the organization level. One study was done by Farid Muna (1982) on “The Arab Executive”. [12] It identified weakness of Arab executives regarding time management and utilization, particularly in the Gulf States, where managers did not care much about time when performing their functions.

The study also showed that Arab executives’ time was under pressure from such sources as:

[A] Lack or misuse of technology, particularly in the fields of information and communication, and backward channels of communication within their organizations;

[b] Social traditions that impede proper utilization of time;

[c] Participation in social functions, as part of their duties towards society;

[d] Centralization of authority on the one hand, and lack of delegation to the other hand;

[e] The open-door policy of dealing with personnel as well as clients in person.

Explaining why the Arab executives underrate time, Farid Muna’s study suggested the following causes: unawareness of the value of time; inappropriate life style; influence and social courtesies; excessive bureaucracy and centralization; personal relations as well as family connections among personnel on the one hand, and between them and clients and visitors on the other hand.

In his study on “Managerial Planning and Time”, Ribhy Al-Hassan (1982) discussed the importance of time for planning. He attributed the inability to manage time to lack of objectives, priorities, daily plans, and deadlines, and to competing priorities and performing too many tasks at one time. [13]

Attempting to contribute to managers’ awareness of the importance of time and how to organize and invest it properly, Mohamed Al-Qaryuti (1995) conducted a study titled “Time Management”. He recommended that management reduce communication procedures so that time, as a major resource, can be saved and invested in the best possible way. [14]

In a joint study, Nadir Abu Sheikhah and Mohamed Al-Qaryuti demonstrated that among the acute problems facing Arab managers in general, and Jordanian managers in particular, are the absence of a clearly defined philosophy of time and time wasting through mismanagement. The manager’s failure to utilize official work time properly can be attributed to being unaware of the value of time, having no clear idea about tasks and duties or being unable to establish priorities. Any or all of those conditions lead to wasting too much time on performing tasks of minor importance.

Abu Sheikhah’s and Al-Qaryuti’s study identified a correlation between the job characteristics of the Jordanian manager and his view of time. The higher the manager’s job level and category were, the nearer to the modern scientific view was his philosophy of time. That view regards time as one of the basic elements of production and a valuable resource to be invested in the achievement of defined objectives. However, the study found no correlation between the manager’s personal characteristics and his view of time or his ability to manage official work time. [15]

In Saudi Arabia, a number of studies on time management have been conducted at the level of government institutions. For instance, Mohamed Asfoor did a field study on some ministries and institutions for the purpose of identifying how the manager utilizes his official work time. According to the study results: 50% of the official work time of the Saudi employee was spent on dealing with official works; approximately 12% on official meetings; 10% on activities related to official work (e. g. telephone calls, personnel and works follow-up); only 4% on thinking and planning. [16]

In his study, titled “Productivity in the Government Sector”, conducted on a number of government sector personnel in Saudi Arabia, Mohamed Al-Ghaith (1990) found out that”57% of the study sample maintained that the time available to them was not sufficient for meeting the needs of work”. [17] He also identified a list of ten factors representing the major wasters of the time of the Saudi government managers. [18]

In 1987, Abdul-Aziz Malaekah conducteda study on managers, both Saudi and Western, working in various government institutions, particularly in Jeddah. The study aimed at identifying the importance and value of time and the conditions affecting it. The study results showed that 88% of the Saudi managers, and 100% of the Western managers stressed the importance of time and the need to utilize it effectively and productively. The study attributed the failure to utilize time properly to the following: unexpected visits; the open-door policy; holding meetings unnecessarily, and without prior organization; entertainment sessions; ineffective management styles; lack of delegation; lack of managerial efficiency; huge gaps and differences in terms of academic qualifications and experience among personnel at various levels, even at the same level. [19]

In 1997, Ali Al-Qarni conducted a field study on Saudi managers in government institutions in Riyadh. The study investigated the managers’ attitudes toward time (importance and amount), and their abilities to manage the official work time. It attempted to test a number of hypotheses and relation between the variables of job characteristics and the manager’s personal characteristics and the manager’s attitude toward time as well as his ability to manage it. It also attempted to test the relation between each of the job characteristics and the personal characteristics with the variable of allocating official work time. According to the study results, job and personal characteristics had no impact on the manager’s attitude toward time. However, there was a significant positive correlation between the manager’s qualification and his attitude toward time. The study also identified a correlation between job characteristics and the manager’s ability to manage time. In addition, there was a correlation between the manager’s salary and his ability to manage time. [20]

Obviously, the afore-mentioned studies, both foreign and Arab, stressed the importance of how the manager allocated his time. They identified the major wasters of his time and his attitude toward time. They investigated the relations between a number of characteristics or variables and his attitude. Managers in government agencies were the focus of investigation.

*     6.2 A Field Study on Time Management in the Private Industrial Sector in Saudi Arabia

The researcher conducted this field study on the private industrial sector (private factories) in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The choice of that sector was based on the following:

[1] The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is experiencing ambitious and promising industrial development, to which all of us must contribute.

[2] Saudi industry is considered an essential source of national income, for, by Allah’s Grace, it is full of various natural resources, which represents the base for industrial development.

[3] In its current phase of development, the Saudi industrial sector needs all sorts of efforts and studies necessary for facing international competition.

[4] Having two industrial areas, Riyadh represents an important industrial base in Saudi Arabia.

According to the statistics of the Saudi Ministry of Industry, [21] the total number of factories in Riyadh till the month of Sha’ban, 1419 H. reached 824. Out of that number, the small factories, which had no more than 100 employees, were discarded. The big factories (197 factories), with over 100 employees, are shown in Table No. (1) According to type of activity.

Table No. (1)


     Type of Activity        Number of Factories             Random Sample Number      Number of Managers

1    Building material and glass products       34           10       38

2    Paper and printing products                  11           8         34

3    Aluminum products   10                       4            16

4    Fiber and leather products                    14           6         28

5    Food products          23                       8            43

6    Electrical equipment and tools               25           12       62

7    Wooden and metal furniture                 23           15       69

8    Mineral industries     27                       17           81

9    Plastic and chemical industries               30           14       79

     Total                      197                      94           450

6.2.1 Study Results

This study is based on the premise that if time is wasted or is not invested, it represents a problem since it cannot be replaced, and that managers are aware that managing their time is a significant factor in increasing their productivity. Being a limited resource, time has to be properly managed and well utilized. In fact, most of the problems of managers’ low productivity are often attributed to such factors as: lack of clearly defined objectives; lack of daily work schemes, lack of establishing priorities for the required tasks; lack of organization on the part of the manager himself; interruptions and distractions at work; unplanned meetings; hasty decisions, or lack of decision-making.

The study put forward a number of questions, which can be summed up as follows:

[1] How does the Saudi manager in the Saudi industrial sector view the value of time?

[2] What are the wasters of the manager’s time?

[3] How effective is the Saudi manager in utilizing and investing his work time?

[4] What are the tools and means on which the Saudi manager relies in organizing and managing his work time?

[5] Are there any correlations between the variables of time value from the Saudi manager’s point of view and personality and job variables?

The theoretical part of the study highlighted the following points:

[1] Islam is concerned with time. This is verified by several statements from the Holy Qur’an and the purified Sunnah. Islamic teachings hold the individual Muslim entirely accountable for his time; it is a trust that should not be lost.

[2] Islam demands of the Muslim to grab the opportunities of this life and spare time, and not to waste them, for he will have to account for them on Judgment Day.

[3] Islam has laid foundations for many of the management functions (planning, organizing, directing, control and decision-making) in relation to time management. They are derived from statements from the Holy Qur’an, the purified Sunnah and the history of the Salaf.

[4] The Salaf were fully aware of the real value of time. This was a contributing factor to the flourishing and supremacy of Islamic civilization for centuries.

[5] A unique feature of Islamic management is that it is based on faith in Allah. Islam regards work as a trust to be properly looked after. Failure to do that is considered betrayal of that trust. Also, Islam instills in the individual Muslim self-control derived from his responsibility to Allah for all deeds. Good deeds deserve reward, and bad ones deserve punishment. Seeking Allah’s rewards and avoiding His punishment represent strong motives for perfecting tasks.

With respect to the fieldwork conducted on the Saudi private sector in Riyadh, the following results emerged:

[1] Most Saudi managers in the selected sample view time as an important source that must be invested into work. They value it highly, seek to invest it and try to put that into practice. The value of time was as high as 85. 8%. This result is consistent with Malaekah’s results (1991); 88% of the Saudi managers as well as 100% of Western managers, in government and private institutions in Jeddah, stressed the importance of time. The result is also near to that of Al-Qarni’s study on the Saudi manager in government institutions (1996); approximately 70% of managers considered time an important resource. 

The study indicates rise in the value of time from the perspective of the Saudi manager in the industrial private Sector, compared to his counterpart in the government sector.

However, the results of the present study differ from those of the study conducted by Farid Muna (1981) on the Arab executive; Arab executives, particularly in the Gulf States, did not confer on time a high value when performing their tasks. The researcher explains the difference between the present study and Farid Muna’s in terms of the long period of time between both studies. The latter was conducted in 1981, whereas the former in 2000.

[2] The present study has identified major wasters of the time of the Saudi manager in the private industrial sector. It has also identified the practices that waste his time at work. Four sets of wasters have been identified: 

1-        Time-Wasters of Very High Significance

This set includes the following: lack of good organization of work;

not keeping files and papers in their proper places; lack of defined objectives and established priorities; lack of effective co-ordination; unexpected visits by friends, relatives and colleagues; lack of clear communication between the manager and his subordinates; lack of planning for work; lack of established deadlines for achieving objectives; lack of accurate information; late arrival at work in the morning.

2-        Time-Wasters of High Significance

The second set includes the following time-wasters: getting things for the home during official work time; delay and procrastination; leaving work early; giving lifts to children during official work time; lack of delegation; reading papers and magazines at work; going to hospital during official work time; focusing on minor issues and routine procedures.

3-        Time-Wasters of Average Significance This set includes: lengthy meetings; telephone interruptions; too much paper work; doing several things at one time.

4-        Time-Wasters of Low Significance

The fourth set includes: tea and coffee breaks; insisting on seeing all details.

Comparison of the results of the present study with those of pervious studies on the wasters of the manager’s time in government institutions reveals that the present study relies a more comprehensive list of time-wasters (24 items).

For instance, the set of time-wasters of high significance, identified in the present study, is mainly concerned with basic functions, such as lack of proper organization of work, lack of planning, and lack of effective co-ordination, lack of clear communication between the manager and his subordinates and unexpected visits. This set differs in quality from the time-wasters in government institutions, as revealed by the studies conducted by Asfoor (1980 and 1981). These studies dealt mainly with routine matters, such as tea and coffee drinking, late arrival at work in the morning, reading papers and magazines and private telephone calls. 

[3] The present study shows that the Saudi manager in the private industrial sector cares about managing his time effectively. This effectiveness was measured by means of a model designed particularly for that purpose. Necessary analytical studies were done to establish the model’s validity and reliability. The model included six main dimensions, each of which represented an aspect of time management effectiveness. Regarding the Saudi manager, analysis of results revealed the following:

1-        He was concerned with planning as part of the management process in a way that is harmonious with time management, and that does not waste his time.

2-        2. He emphasizes the role of the organizing function in effective time management through organizing work and proper delegation of authority.

3-        3. He is concerned with managing meetings for the purpose of investing and managing work time effectively.

4-        He makes a great effort to prevent persistent work interruptions. This indicates how concerned he is with controlling private and telephone interruptions without going to extremes when managing and investing time.

5-        He stresses sound management of the place of work so that time can be saved and properly invested in accomplishing the required tasks.

6-        He is keen on taking proper and sound decisions, based on thorough investigation, but without wasting time or procrastination. Decision-making is vital for business organizations.

Even though the present study is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia, its results can be compared with those of Al-Ghaith’s study (1990) on issues causing the time of the Saudi manager in the government sector to be insufficient for fulfilling work needs. Both studies agree on the following as time-wasters: unexpected telephone calls; interruptions during work; lack of proper delegation of authority; bad organizing; misplacing things and papers.

[4] Regarding the Saudi manager’s personal characteristics and their impact on his attitude towards time, the present study results do not show any significant correlation between his valuation of time and his social status. However, the results show significant correlation between the manager’s age and his attitude towards time; the older the manager, the more valuable time is for him. They also show significant correlation between academic qualification and attitude towards time; the higher the manager’s qualification, the more valuable time is for him.

[5] Regarding job characteristics, the present study has shown no significant correlation between the Saudi manager’s valuation of time and a number of job characteristics (job title, type of activity sector, and years of experience, how long he has worked in his factory and scope of supervision). In other words, these characteristics are not related to his attitude towards time.

[6] The present study has shown significant positive correlation between the Saudi manager’s valuation of time and his use of the means of time organizing and management.

The study has also identified the type of that relationship among various means of time organizing suggested by the researcher in the questionnaire distributed to the Saudi mangers. There is significant correlation between the manager’s valuation of time and each of the manual calendar, the electronic calendar, the daily list of tasks and the weekly list of scheduled tasks. However, no significant correlation has been found between the manager’s valuation of time and the rest of the means of organizing time, particularly the role of the secretary.

[7] The present study has identified major methods and means seen by the Saudi manager as important for organizing time. The photocopier ranked the highest means of organizing time, as it saves time. Next came the fax machine, followed by the daily list of scheduled required tasks. At the bottom comes the answer-machine telephone. The following table shows in a descending order the manager’s ranking of the means of organizing time according to importance.

                                                                Table (2)

       Means of Organizing time                           Arithmetic Mean

1     Photocopier                                             4. 067

2     Fax machine                                            4. 060

3     Daily list of scheduled tasks                        3. 84

4     Computer programs for task performance    3. 79

5     Manual calendar for appointments               3. 59

6     Weekly list for scheduled tasks                   3. 44

7     Personal diary                                          3. 36

8     Great reliance on the secretary                   3. 10

9     Mobile telephone                                       3. 03

10   Electronic mail                                          2. 65

11   The internet                                             2. 34

12   Electronic diary for appointments                 2. 23

13   Scanner                                                  2. 09

14   Answer machine telephone                         2. 02

6.2.2 Recommendations

In the light of those results, the study makes the following recommendations:

1-   Islam is a perfect constitution for life. It provides for the creation of a unique Muslim personality. Therefore, Muslims must draw on it by reflecting on its main sources, the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the sayings of the Righteous Salaf. It is those very sources that Muslims have to consult when dealing with their practical affairs. For competent investigation of their economic, political administrative as well as other problems, they have to follow Islamic guidance. By so doing, they can enrich Islamic thought and practice.

2-   It is imperative that Muslims, particularly those in higher positions, be fully aware of their duties towards time and how they are going to account for it on the Day of Judgment. This can be achieved by means of relevant courses and symposia.

3-   Effective utilization of time is essential for continuity of business success. Therefore, greater effort has to be exerted to make the Saudi manager aware of and concerned with the value of time in this age, which is characterized by speed, modern information technology, successive technological advances, increasingly fierce international competition and globalization. This can be realized by educational means such as training courses, lectures and by academic studies that can enrich the Arab library and benefit those interested in time management. Crucial to such means is the notion that time is basically one of the production resources, and it has to be properly utilized and invested.

4-   The present study demands that managers give up undesirable practices and behaviour that result in time wasting at work, such as personal visits, reading papers and magazines, telephone calls, fruitless lengthy meetings and obsession with details. This can be achieved by means of developing appropriate notions of time and work values and instilling love for work and appreciation of achievements and good performance.

5-   Because of the identified correlation between the manger’s age and his attitude towards time, and consequently, his effectiveness of time management, age should be taken into consideration when selecting managers.

6-   Also, academic qualifications should be taken into consideration when selecting managers because of the identified correlation between the manger’s academic qualification and his attitude towards time, and consequently, his effectiveness of time management. 

7-    Great emphasis should be laid on providing the Saudi manager with indispensable skills of time management, for they are crucial for effectiveness. This can be achieved by focusing on the importance of planning and organizing in management, as well as the importance of managing interruptions and organizing the work place; the aim is to establish a course of action beneficial to the manager in performing his tasks and managing his time effectively. When designing and developing programmes for Saudi managers, the practical dimensions of time management should be incorporated into the training content, particularly those considered by this study as beneficial in combating weaknesses of time management.

8-   In organizing and managing time at work, the Saudi manager should make better use of other means available nowadays, such as secretaries, the internet, the electronic diary and electronic mail.

9-   Further studies should be conducted on time management. They should investigate other variables not dealt with in this study. Suggested studies can deal with environmental variables and their impact. They can also investigate the relationship between time management and technology or modern information technology. Field studies can be extended to other areas in Saudi Arabia.



[1] The Eastern Province’s Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Proceedings of the Symposium on Privatization and its Impact on the Saudi Economy, Rajab, 1409 H. , p. 6.

الغرفة التجارية والصناعية للمنطقة الشرقية ، ندوة التخصيص وأثره في الاقتصاد السعودي، 9 رجب 1409 ، ص 6 .

[2] Chamber of Commerce and Industry: The Role of the Private Sector in the achievement of Development Goals, Riyadh, and Rabi’ Aththani, 1407 H., pp. 12-13.

الغرفة التجارية والصناعية، دور القطاع الخاص السعودي في خدمة أهداف التنمية، الرياض، ربيع الثاني، 1407هـ ، ص 12 – 13

[3] Ibid., pp. 12-13.

الغرفة التجارية والصناعية، دور القطاع الخاص السعودي في خدمة أهداف التنمية، الرياض، ربيع الثاني، 1407هـ ، ص 12 – 13

[4] McCay, J., the Management of Time, Prentice Hall INC., N.J., 1995(first published in 1959), P. 19.

ملاحظة: صدرت أول طبعة من هذا الكتاب في عام 1959م كما ذكر في ص (xii) من نفس المرجع أعلاه.

[5] Stewart, R. M., Managers and Their Jobs, McGraw Hill Co., N. Y.: 1967, PP. 44-45.

[6] Peter Drucker was born in Vienna in 1909.  He published his first article on the Economics of the World Bank in London in 1929.  He settled in the U. S., and worked for the British Banks Group.  Then, he worked as an administrative consultant for one of the major leading American companies.  Later, he worked as a professor of politics and philosophy at Benington University, then, as a professor of administration at New York University. He published a number of books and researches.  (See: The Practice of Management, Butterworth, 1984.)

بيتر دركر: ولد في فيينا عام 1909م، نشر أول بحث له في اقتصاديات البنك الدولي بلندن عام 1929م، استقر به الحال في الولايات المتحدة وعمل في مجموعة البنوك البريطانية ثم استشاري إداري في أكبر الشركات الأمريكية الرائدة، ثم أستاذ السياسة والفلسفة بجامعة بننقتون، وأستاذ الإدارة بجامعة نيويورك ، له عدد من الكتب والبحوث المنشورة. انظر : (The Practice of Management, Butter worth, 1984. )

[7] Drucker, P., the Effective Executive, N. Y., Harper and Row, 1982, PP. 42 – 45.

[8] Temp, Dale: Time Management (Arabic translation by Waleed Hawanah), Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh, 1991, pp. 264-265.

انظر: تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت. ترجمة وليد هوانه، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1991م ، ص 264-265.

[9] Alexander Hamilton Institute, 1633 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 10019 U. S.

[10] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, in Arabic, Dar Majdalawi, Amman, 1991, p. 136.

انظر: أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م، ص 136 .

[11] Salama, S. Ben-Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op. cit., p. 21.

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت: منهج متطور للنجاح، المنظمة العربية للعلوم الإدارية، إدارة البحوث والدراسات، عمان، 1988م، ص 21 . بتصرّف.

[12] Muna, Farid: The Arab Executive, St. Martin Press, N. Y. 1980.

[13] Al-Qarni, Ali Ibn-Saeed: Time Management, a Field Study on How the Saudi Manager in Government Institutions in Riyadh Utilizes his Time, a Master’s Dissertation, Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, 1996, p. 26.

القرني، علي بن سعيد، إدارة الوقت : دراسة ميدانية عن مدى استغلال المدير السعودي للوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، بمدينة الرياض، رسالة ماجستير، قسم الإدارة العامة، كلية العلوم الإدارية، جامعة الملك سعود، الرياض، 1996م، ص 26.

[14] Ibid., p. 26                                                                         انظر: المرجع نفسه ص 26

[15] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad and Al-Qaryuti, Mohamed:” Time Management in Jordanian Government Institutions”, the University of Jordan Human Sciences Journal, Vol. 20, 1993, and pp. 119 – 120.

انظر : أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، القريوتي،محمد،إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية الأردنية، مجلة دراسات العلوم الإنسانية- الجامعة الأردنية، العدد الأول، المجلّد[20]، 1993م، ص 119-120 .

[16] Asfure, M. Shakir:”How the Manager Spends his Official Work Time”, in Arabic, a paper presented at the Symposium on Productivity Obstacles in the Government Sector, Riyadh, Institute of Public Administration, 1400 H. , p. 8.

انظر: عصفور، محمد شاكر، كيفية إشغال المدير لوقت الدوام الرسمي، ندوة الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي ومعوقاتها، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1400هـ، ص 8 .

[17] Al-Ghaith, Mohamed Ibn Abdullah:” Productivity in the Government Sector, Concept, Obstacles and Methods and Means of Improvement”, Administrative Journal, Year 12, Issue No. 41, Muskat, Institute of Administration, June, p. 128

الغيث، محمد بن عبد الله، الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي: المفهوم والمعوقات ووسائل وطرق تحسين الإنتاجية، مجلة الإداري،  س (12)، عدد (41) ، معهد الإدارة، مسقط، يونيو 1990م، ص 128 .

[18] Ibid., p. 129                                                                                                       انظر: المرجع نفسه ، 129

[19] Malaekah, A. Mohamed: Time Management in Businesses in Saudi Arabia, in Arabic, Series of Publications by the Administration of Economic Research and Information, The Saudi Cairo Bank, Jeddah, 1991, pp. 147-148.

انظر: ملائكة، عبد العزيز محمد، إدارة الوقت في الأعمال بالمملكة العربية السعودية، بنك القاهرة السعودي، سلسلة إصدارات إدارة الأبحاث الاقتصادية والمعلومات ، جدة،1412هـ-1991م ص 147 -148.

[20] Al-Qarni, Ali Ibn-Saeed: Time Management, a Field Study on How the Saudi Manager in Government Institutions in Riyadh Utilizes his Time, op. cit.

انظر: القرني، علي بن سعيد، إدارة الوقت : دراسة ميدانية عن مدى استغلال المدير السعودي للوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، مرجع سابق. صفحة ج .

[21] Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Directory of the Riyadh Factories, 8th. Edition, 1419 H.

الغرفة التجارية الصناعية، دليل مصانع الرياض، الرياض، ط8، 1419هـ·                                     

                       

 

 

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القرآن الكريم

 

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كتب التفسير

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·         [D] Turath (Heriatage) Books

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المزي، أبو الحجاج يوسف [654 – 742هـ]، تهذيب الكمال في أسماء الرجال، تحقيق بشار عواد معروف، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط4، 1413هـ – 1992م، [1 – 30].

49.57. Al-Minawi, Abdurra’uf: Faidh Al-Qadeer fi Sharh Al-Jami’ As-Sagheer, in Arabic, The Great Commercial Bookshop, Cairo, 1356 H.

المناوي، عبد الرؤوف [952 – 1031 هـ]، فيض القدير شرح الجامع الصغير، المكتبة التجارية الكبرى، مصر، ط1، 1356هـ، [1 – 6].

·         [E] Time and Management Books

50. Abu-Sin, A. Ibrahim: Managemnent in Islam, Dar Al-Khreiji, Riyadh, 1417 H.

أبو سن، أحمد إبراهيم، الإدارة في الإسلام، دار الخريجي، الرياض، ط6، 1417هـ.

51. Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, in Arabic, Dar Majdalawi, Amman, 1991.

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م.

52. Abu-Ghaddah, Abdulfattah: The Value of Time in the Eyes of Scholars, in Arabic, Maktabat Al-Matbu’at Al-Islamiyyah, Aleppo (Halab), 1996.

أبو غدة، عبد الفتاح، قيمة الزمن عند العلماء، مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية، حلب، ط7، 1417هـ – 1996م.

53. Al-Ahdab, Khuldun: Reflections on the Value of Time, in Arabic, Ad-Dar Ash-Shamiyyah, Beirut, 1993.

الأحدب، خلدون، سوانح وتأملات في قيمة الزمن، الدار الشامية، بيروت، 1414هـ – 1993م.

54. بدر ، أحمد ، أصول البحث العلمي ومناهجه ، وكالة المطبوعات ، الكويت ، ط8 ، 1986م.

55. Al-Bura’i, M.Abdullah:  Principles of Management and Leadership in Islam, in Arabic, Al-Humaidhi Press, Riyadh, 1996.

البرعي، محمد عبد الله، مبادئ الإدارة والقيادة في الإسلام، مطابع الحميضي، الرياض، ط2، 1416هـ – 1996م.

56. Al-Bura’i, M.Abdullah & Abdeeen, A.Hamdi: Management in Islamic Heritage, in Arabic, Bookshop for Modern Services, Jeddah, 1987.

البرعي، محمد عبد الله، وعابدين، عدنان حمدي، الإدارة في التراث الإسلامي، مكتبة الخدمات الحديثة، جدة، 1408هـ – 1987م.

57. Al-Banna, F.Abdulbaasit: A Study in the Field of Islamic Administration and the Discipline of Public Administration, in Arabic, 1405 H.

البنا، فرناس عبد الباسط، التخطيط: دراسة في مجال الإدارة الإسلامية وعلم الإدارة العامة، دن، دم، ط1، 1405هـ.

58. Temp, Dale: Time Management (Arabic translation by Waleed Hawanah), Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh, 1991.

تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت. ترجمة وليد هوانه، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1991م. .

59. الخولي، سيد محمود، فاعلية إدارة الوقت واتخاذ القرارات الإدارية، مكتبة عين شمس، القاهرة، 1994م.

60. ديفز، كيث، السلوك الإنساني في العمل، ترجمة سيد عبد الرحمن مرسي ومحمد إسماعيل يوسف، دار نهضة مصر، القاهرة، 1974م.

61. الرفاعي، أحمد حسين، مناهج البحث العلمي: تطبيقات إدارية واقتصادية، دار وائل للنشر، عمّان، 1998م.

62. Salama, Suhail Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, in Arabic, Arab Organization for Administrative Sciences, Amman, 1988.

سلامة، سهيل فهد، إدارة الوقت: منهج متطور للنجاح، المنظمة العربية للعلوم الإدارية، إدارة البحوث والدراسات، عمان، 1988م.

63. سليمان، حنفي محمود، الإدارة: منهج شامل، دار الجامعة المصرية، الإسكندرية، 1978م.

64. Abdul-’Al, Sha’ban Jibreel: Time: More Precious than All Treasures on Earth, in Arabic, Dar Ibn- Khuzaimah, Riyadh, 1977.

عبد العال، شعبان جبريل، الوقت أغلى من كنوز الأرض، دار ابن خزيمة، الرياض، 1418هـ – 1997م.

65. عبد الوهاب، علي، مقدمة في الإدارة ، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض ، 1982م.

66. العديلي، ناصر محمد ، إدارة الوقت ، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1415هـ – 1994م.

67. Askar, Sameer Ahmad: Fundamentals of Management, in Arabic, Dar Al-Qalam, Dubai, 1987.

عسكر، سمير أحمد، أصول الإدارة، دار القلم، دبي، 1987م.

68. Asfure, M. Shakir: “Time Management in Government Agencies”, in Arabic, a paper presented at the Symposium on Official Working Time at Government Agencies, Riyadh, 1402.

عصفور، محمد شاكر، إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، ندوة الدوام الرسمي في الأجهزة الحكومية، الرياض، 1402هـ.

69. Asfure, M. Shakir: “How the Manager Spends his Official Work Time”, in Arabic, a paper presented at the Symposium on Productivity Obstacles in the Government Sector, Riyadh, Institute of Public Administration, 1400 H.

عصفور، محمد شاكر، كيفية إشغال المدير لوقت الدوام الرسمي، ندوة الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي ومعوقاتها، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1400هـ.

70.  Aqeeli, Omar Wasfi: Management: Foundations, Principles and Concepts, in Arabic, Dar Zahran, Amman, 1997.

عقيلي، عمر وصفي، الإدارة أصول وأسس ومفاهيم، دار زهران، عمّان، 1997م.

71. Ali, M.Mohamed: Islamic Methods of Administration, Dar Al-I’tisaam, Cairo, 1980.

علي، مراد محمد، الأساليب الإدارية في الإسلام، دار الاعتصام، القاهرة، 1980م.

72. Chamber of Commerce and Industry: “The Role of the Private Sector in the achievement of Development Goals”, Riyadh, Rabi’ Aththani, 1407 H., pp. 12-13.

الغرفة التجارية والصناعية، دور القطاع الخاص السعودي في خدمة أهداف التنمية، الرياض، ربيع الثاني، 1407هـ.

73. The Eastern Province’s Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Proceedings of the Symposium on Privatization and its Impact on the Saudi Economy, Rajab, 1409 H.

الغرفة التجارية والصناعية للمنطقة الشرقية، ندوة التخصيص وأثره في الاقتصاد السعودي، 9 رجب 1409.

74. Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Directory of the Riyadh Factories, 8th. edition, 1419 H.

الغرفة التجارية الصناعية، دليل مصانع الرياض، الرياض، ط8، 1419هـ·

75. Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf: Time in the Muslim’s Life, in Arabic, Mua’ssat Arrisalah, Beirut, 1997.

القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط7، 1417هـ-1997م.

76. Al-Qarni, Ali Ibn-Saeed: Time Management, a Field Study on How the Saudi Manager in Government Institutions in Riyadh Utilizes his Time, a Master’s Dissertation, Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, 1996.

القرني، علي بن سعيد، إدارة الوقت: دراسة ميدانية عن مدى استغلال المدير السعودي للوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، بمدينة الرياض، رسالة ماجستير، قسم الإدارة العامة، كلية العلوم الإدارية، جامعة الملك سعود، الرياض، 1996م.

77. Covey, Stephen: Manging Priorities, Arabic translation by sayyid Mewally Hassan, Riyadh, Jareer Bookstore, 1998.

كوفي، ستيفن، إدارة الأولويات، ترجمة سيّد متولي حسن، مكتبة جرير، الرياض، 1998م.

78. Mursi, Nabeel Mohamed, Business Management, Alexandria, Alexandria Book Centre, 1998.

مرسي، نبيل محمد، إدارة الأعمال، مركز الإسكندرية للكتاب، الإسكندرية، 1998م.

79. Al-Mutawwi’, Jassim Mohamed: Time: Construction or Destruction, in Arabic, Dar Ad-Da’wah, Kuwait, 1992.

المطوع، جاسم محمد، الوقت عمار أو دمار، دار الدعوة، الكويت، ط6، 1412هـ – 1992م.

80. Al-Mutairi, H. Ibn-Matir: Islamic Administration: Thought and Practice, in Arabic, Riyadh, 1417H.

المطيـري، حــزام بن ماطـر بن عويـض، الإدارة الإسـلامية الـمنهج والممارسة، دن، الرياض، ط1، 1417هـ.

81.  Malaekah, A. Mohamed: Time Management in Businesses in Saudi Arabia, in Arabic, The Saudi Cairo Bank, Jeddah, 1991.

ملائكة، عبد العزيز محمد، إدارة الوقت في الأعمال بالمملكة العربية السعودية، بنك القاهرة السعودي، سلسلة إصدارات إدارة الأبحاث الاقتصادية والمعلومات، جدة، 1412هـ-1991م.

82. Annahwi, A. Ali Ridha: Understanding Faith Management of the Islamic Call, in Arabic, Dar Annahwi for Publication and Distribution, Riyadh, 1999.

النحوي، عدنان علي رضا، فقه الإدارة الإيمانية في الدعوة الإسلامية، دار النحوي للنشر والتوزيع، ط1، الرياض، 1419هـ – 1999م.

83. Hashim, Haitham: Principles of Management, Khalid Ibn Alwaleed Press, Damascus, Damascus University, 1975.

هاشم، هيثم، مبادئ الإدارة، مطبعة خالد بن الوليد، جامعة دمشق، دمشق، 1975م.

84.70. Hilal, A.Hassan: Skills of Time Management, in Arabic, The Centre for Enhancing Performance and Development, Cairo, 1995.

هلال، عبد الغني حسن، مهارات إدارة الوقت، مركز تطوير الأداء والتنمية، القاهرة، 1995م.

85. الهواري، سيد محمود، مبادئ الإدارة، مكتبة عين شمس، القاهرة،1997م.

86.71. Watar, M. Dhahir: The Role of Time in Management, in Arabic, Al-Matba’ah Al-Ilmiyyah, Damascus.

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، المطبعة العلمية، دمشق، دت.

·         [F] Journals and Periodicals

87. Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad and Al-Qaryuti, Mohamed: “Time Management in Jordanian Government Institutions”, The University of Jordan Human Sciences Journal, Vol.20, 1993, pp. 119 – 120.

انظر : أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، القريوتي،محمد،إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية الأردنية، مجلة دراسات العلوم الإنسانية- الجامعة الأردنية، العدد الأول، المجلّد [20]، 1993م، ص 119-120 .

88. Al-Ghaith, Mohamed Ibn Abdullah: “Productivity in the Government Sector, Concept, Obstacles and Methods and Means of Improvement”, Administrative Journal, Year 12, Issue No. 41, Muskat, Institute of Administration, June, p. 128

الغيث، محمد بن عبد الله، الإنتاجية في القطاع الحكومي: المفهوم والمعوقات ووسائل وطرق تحسين الإنتاجية، مجلة الإداري،  س (12)، عدد (41) ، معهد الإدارة، مسقط، يونيو 1990م، ص 128 .

89.53. Al-Mazjaji, A.Dawud: “Administrative Organization in Islam: Concept and Characteristics”, King Saud University Journal, Vol. 3, Administrative Sciences (1), 1991.

المزجاجي، أحمد داود، التنظيم الإداري في الإسلام: مفهومه وخصائصه، مجلة جامعة الملك سعود، مجلد (3)، العلوم الإدارية (1)، 1411هـ – 1991م.

·         [G] English References

90. Bon and Gregory, Techniques of Marketing, Vuibert, Paris, 1986.

91. Clark, J. and Susan, How To Make The Most Of Your Work Day, N.Y: Career Press, 1994.

92. Drucker, P., The Effective Executive, N.Y. : Harper and Row, 1982.

93. Fayol, H., General And Industrial Management, N.Y: Pitman Pub. Co., Marshal: 1949

94. Helmer, P.E, Time Management for Engineers and Constructors, New York: American Society of Civil Engineers, 1991.

95. Mackenzie, R.A., New Time Management Methods, London: The Darnell Corporation, 1990.

96. Mackenzie, M., and A. Mackenzie, Investing Time For Maximum Return Iowa: American Media Publishing, 1997.

97. McCay, J., The Management of Time, Prentice Hall INC., N.J.: 1995.

98. Farid, Muna, The Arab Executive, St. Martin Press, N.Y., 1980.

99. Stewart, R.M., Managers And Their Jobs, McGraw Hill Co., N.Y.: 1967.

100. Taylor, F., Shop Management, Harper and Brothers, INC., N. Y.:1903.

101. Webster’s New World, College Dictionary, Macmillan, USA, 1997.

 

 

 

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