Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives, Part (1)

Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives

Part (1)

By: Dr. Wahid A. Al-Hindi, Professor of Public Administration, Chairperson of Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University

                      

*               Dedication

It is to my dear parents that I humbly dedicate this work. They have spared no effort in looking after me and encouraging me. I do pray that Allah, the Almighty, the Exalted will grant them long, healthy and enjoyable life.

                           

Foreword

*     In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

May Allah’s prayers and peace be upon His honorable Messenger, Prophet Muhammad, his kin and his Companions.

This is to introduce the present scholarly piece of work on the important topic of time management. So valuable and irreplaceable is time that countries and organizations are all concerned with its proper investment.

Even though it was the advanced countries that apparently started academic investigation into time management, Islamic Shari’ah sources have long given due attention to that topic.  The Glorious Qur’an and the Sound Hadiths encourage Muslims to utilize time for their benefit in this world and the Hereafter. Not only does this study present time from an Islamic perspective, but also form the perspective of modern administrative theories; herein lies the value of the study. Furthermore, the study involves fieldwork on the effectiveness of the Saudi manager in the industrial sector with regard to investing time for his own benefit and the benefit of his organization.

Such a worthy attempt, dealing with the important topic of time with specific application to the Saudi industrial sector, should be very much appreciated. We hope it will instigate further applications to other sectors of the economy. 

In conclusion, we pray that this book will (by Allah’s Grace) be beneficial to academics, practitioners and students, and that it will trigger further research.

Dr. Wahid A. Al-Hindi

 

                      

   

 

          Introduction

To Allah all praise is due. It is He that we ask for help and guidance. In Him we seek refuge from our own evil and bad deeds. None can mislead whomever He guides, nor can anyone guide whomever He misleads. I do testify that there is no god but Allah, alone without partners, and I do testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, who is the best model for organization and time management. May Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, his kin, his Companions and his followers till the Day of Reckoning.

Two major administrative requirements are efficiency and effectiveness. Both are advocated by Islamic teachings. The Muslim is required to conduct his entire affairs properly. In fact, the Muslim is called upon and encouraged to apply Islamic teachings thoroughly in both the theoretical and the practical arenas. In other words, activities in both arenas must not be done without being guided by those teachings. In this regard, Allah says in the Holy Qur’an,”162 Say: Lo! My worship and, my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the Worlds. “[1] The Muslim is also required to be a strong believer, equipped with faith and knowledge.

There is hardly any Qur’anic Surah, Sunnah or Companion’s biography that does not reflect administrative applications that does not provide guidance to effective utilization of resources, aptitudes and human potentials, that does not demand valuable qualities, such as patience, industriousness, non-capriciousness and self-discipline, or that does not call for good work, planning, organizing, guidance or control.

The Muslim has certain duties towards Allah, himself and society. They involve knowledge, work and acts of worship. Their proper discharge necessitates that each of them be allocated its due amount of time. No duty should encroach on the time allocated to other duties; otherwise, there may not be sufficient time to discharge any of them. Islamic teachings call for the proper investment and management of time, and so does modern administrative thought.

Time represents an extremely important resource in this life. If it is not effectively utilized, so much will be lost. Time lost will be difficult to make up for; once it passes, it never comes back.  

Time is popularly described as gold. In fact, it is more valuable than gold, for it is priceless.  In the field of business, time is counted among the basic five resources: materials, information, people, equipment and time. Of these resources, time occupies a special place; if properly managed, it can maximize the output of the other four. Also, at the personal level, one is said to be managing one’s time effectively if he is running his own life and activities effectively. 

Thus, time is considered a common factor at the personal as well as the professional levels.  Its value has been so widely recognized that it has become one of the subjects of study (time management) in the discipline of business administration. 

This book is comprised of six chapters: 

Chapter 1 presents a definition of time and demonstrates the importance of time in the Glorious Qur’an and the Purified Sunnah.

Chapter 2 discusses time and its management from an administrative perspective.

Chapter 3 deals with time management in the light of relevant statements from the Holy Qur’an and the Purified Sunnah and from the sayings of the Righteous Salaf (early Muslims, e.g. the Prophet’s Companions and those who followed in their footsteps).

Chapter 4 identifies the duties of the Muslim manager towards time and its proper management, and it identifies major time-wasters.

Chapter 5 deals with methods and equipment used in time management. It also presents the major approaches to effective time management, which evolve into an advanced approach to effective time management, while benefiting from field studies.

Chapter 6 is concerned with the applied aspect of time management as revealed by previous studies in the Arab world, particularly in Saudi Arabia, in addition to the field study conducted by the author in the private industrial sector in Saudi Arabia.


[1] Surat Al-An’am, Ayah 162.

                        

                      

 

 

                        

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

          Chapter 1

Definition and Importance of Time According to Islamic and Administrative Views

1. 1 Definition of Time

1. 2 Importance of Time in the Glorious Qur’an

1. 3 Importance of Time in the Purified Sunnah

*     Introduction

Administration literature traditionally attributes the emergence of the discipline of administration to the basic principles laid down by Frederic Taylor [1] in his book Principles of Scientific Management (1911) – he is called “the father of scientific management”. It also refers to Henry Fayol [2] as “the founder of the discipline of public and industrial management”, the principles of which were first laid down in his book General and Industrial Management (1916). Specialists in the field of administration – Muslim specialists included – insist that current prevalent principles of management have all evolved from those two books, [3] thus ignoring other sources. 

However, examination of Islamic heritage reveals potential principles and guidance for the academic field of administration. For instance, there is hardly any Qur’anic Surah, Sunnah or Companion’s biography that does not reflect administrative applications, that does not reflect guidelines to effective utilization of resources, aptitudes and human potentials, or that does not demand valuable traits and activities, such as patience, industriousness, good work, planning, organization, guidance, control, non-capriciousness and self discipline. This book presents statements from the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the Righteous Salaf’s sayings, which reflect such potential principles and guidance, particularly for time management.                       

Obviously, the current concept of time management has been so much associated with managerial work that its application has become confined to a narrow field. [4] However, Islam gives due attention to time in general, at both the personal and the work levels. Muslims are urged to make good use of their time and not to waste it. In fact, they have to account for their time on the Day of Judgment. In this regard, Prophet Muhammad says, “On the Day of Resurrection, the feet of man will not move away till he is questioned about four matters: how he spent his lifetime, how he spent his youth; from where he acquired his wealth and how he spent it, and what he did with his knowledge. “[5] In this Hadith, time is portrayed as one unit. Muslims are, therefore, called upon to make good use of it in general, and at the productive stage of youth in particular. This is reflected in the Prophet’s saying, “Grab five things before five others: your youth before your decrepitude, your health before your illness, your wealth before your poverty, your leisure before your work, and your life before your death.”[6]

Thus, time is a trust for which we are responsible, and which we should never waste or spend foolishly, particularly when it involves rights, God’s and people’s; He says in the Qur’an, “58 Lo! Allah commandeth you that ye restore deposits to their owners…. “[7]

That time occupies a special place among the factors of production finds support in the Islamic belief that “Allah measureth the night and the day”[8], i.e., time, and He is the One who determines responsibilities. Accordingly, a Muslim’s life and time are organized in such a way that makes his sleep, his awareness, his acts of worship and his daily work an indivisible whole directed to one purpose, Allah’s remembrance. Time as such is occupied by continuous worship. 

In contrast, the materialist view of administration, prevalent in the West, regards time as money. [9] Compare the popular saying “Time is money “to Al-Basry’s statement “I have seen people who were much more careful about their time than their money.”[10] The comparison reflects an Islamic view that considers time more valuable than money; whereas money can be replaced, time cannot.

This chapter comprises 3 sections:

1. 1 Definition of Time

1. 2 Importance of Time in the Glorious Qur’an

1. 3 Importance of Time in the Purified Sunnah

*     1. 1 Definition of Time

Management does not exist in a vacuum, but within a specific context. In performing its functions, it relies on certain elements, one of which is time, which “is considered both a hard and flexible concept simultaneously, for within one society, individuals use different terms to express time relationships.”[11]” Some common conceptions of time among managers are: ‘time as a master’; ‘time as an enemy’; ‘time as a mystery’; time as a slave’; ‘time as a neutral force’. [12] How one views time determines how he deals with it, and explains the patterns of behaviour some people have with regard to time.

Proper utilization of time usually determines the difference between success and failure. Out of the daily twenty-four hours, only a few are utilized for work purposes. Therefore, the problem becomes one of what to do within that limited amount of time. Making use of every minute is important for the achievement of work economically and at the right time. Since time always passes at a fixed and constant speed, one has to care for the time allocated to him. The amount of time, daily, monthly and yearly, is the same for all. However, the sheer amount of time is not more important than how to manage the time available to us. Effective time management can result in better utilization and more achievements.

“Those, who care for their time, are the ones who make great achievements in their personal and professional lives, and they do realize that time is not enough for doing all what they want to do. In contrast, those who do not care much for making achievements are the ones who consider time to be of little value. “[13]

The issue of time is a permanent human problem. Its conceptualization varies according to motives, needs and the nature of the required functions and activities. Also, the wider cultural context directly and indirectly determines the relationship between man and time.   

To give a definite and exact definition of time, particularly in the field of administration, is not an easy task. However, this study has adopted a somewhat neutral definition from Webster’s New World College Dictionary; time is “the specific, usual or allotted period during which something is done.”[14] Thus, time refers to the period of official work.

In what follows, we will try to delineate the characteristics and types of time in order to clarify the concept of such a precious resource in man’s life.

1. 1. 1 Characteristics of Time:

It seems difficult to give an accurate definition of time. However, by reflecting on the progress of life and historical events, certain characteristics can be identified. “For Long, scientists have observed that time passes at a fixed and constant speed. Every second, every minute and every hour resemble all other seconds, minutes and hours. Time passes in a successive forward movement in accordance with a uniquely controlled system, which cannot be stopped, changed, increased or re-constructed. “[15] [“Thus, the constant forward movement of time is neither fast nor slow, and it cannot be stopped, accumulated, cancelled, altered or replaced.”[16]

Characteristic of time is that it is an identifiable resource equally available to all. Even though people are not born with equal capabilities or equal opportunities, they all have the same twenty-four hours daily and the same fifty-two weeks yearly. Thus, regardless of being rich or poor, high or low ranking, all people are equal with respect to the amount of time available.  Therefore, the problem of time is not one of amount, but of how to manage and utilize that amount. In other words, the question is: Is time well and usefully used in accomplishing required tasks, or is it wasted or spent on trivial matters?

Since time is such a unique resource that cannot be accumulated, and since “it passes quickly, does not return, and cannot be replaced, it is considered the most precious and valuable human possession. Its preciousness is attributed to its being a vehicle for all types of activity or production. In fact, it is the real ‘capital’ available to man individually and collectively”. [17] Accordingly, time is considered life’s foundation, on which civilization stands. It is true that time cannot be bought, sold, rented, borrowed, doubled, saved or manufactured.  Nevertheless, it can be invested and valued. For instance, those who have the time to accomplish their work and the time to enjoy other activities as well must have learned the difference between quantity and quality. They must be investing every minute of their time.  Therefore, “time management does not aim at changing, modifying or developing time, but at how to invest it so effectively that time spent uselessly or unproductively is reduced to a minimum, while attempting to raise productivity within the allocated period of time.”[18]

Even though time is one of the basic resources of management, it is unique in that it cannot be stored or replaced, and that it is part of all aspects of the management process. Therefore, it has a significant impact on how those resources are utilized.

Given such importance, time has to be managed in a way compatible with its worth. Drucker sums up the significance of time in his statement: “Time management means the management of self. How can one manage the time of others if one cannot manage oneself!”[19]

However, there are a lot of managers who are unaware of such a uniquely essential resource.  They waste their time on unworthy things and activities. In other words, such activities produce results that do not match the amount of time spent on them, hence, their scant contribution to the achievement of objectives. In this respect, the real solution is ‘optimum utilization of the available time’. Managers have to learn how to utilize their time. As remarked by Drucker, “Efficient mangers do not start straight with performing their tasks, but they first look into their time. They do not start straight with planning, but they first investigate on what to spend their time. Besides, they do their best to minimize useless activities, which drain their time. “[20]

1. 1. 2 Types of Time

Time can be investigated by grouping activities into categories in terms of similarity, and identifying how much time is spent on each of its aspects. For example, there is personal time and communication of all kinds, such as phone calls, meetings, individual discussions, visits, etc. Then, professional aspects can be identified and their time allocated. Also, activities can be analyzed in terms of the order of activities. This analysis involves time spent on dealing with encountered obstacles.

However, the manager’s time can be divided four types: [21]

[1] Creative Time

Time is described as ‘creative’ if it is spent on the processes of thinking, analysis and planning for the future, in addition to the organization of work and the evaluation of performance. In performing their managerial functions, managers need that type of time, for they spend it on scientific thinking and sound directing. They also spend it on dealing with administrative problems scientifically so as to find proper solutions that can guarantee the effectiveness of relevant decisions. 

[2] Preparatory Time

This type represents the preparatory phase preceding the start of work. It is spent on the collection of data related to the activities the manager wants to conduct. It is also spent on preparing the equipment and place necessary for starting work. The manager in charge of such activities is to be given the mount of time he needs, because of the economic impact it has on the organization, and because of the loss that might result from lack of basic input into work.

[3] Productive Time

This type represents the period of time spent on the implementation of the work already planned at the creative phase and prepared for at the preparatory phase. For efficiency’s sake, the manager has to strike a balance between the time required for implementation and that for planning and preparation. This balance is necessary for optimum utilization of available resources. For example, the time allocated to routine production tasks should not adversely affect the creation and preparation processes.

Productive Time is divided into two:

(a) Regular production time and

(b) Non-Regular (emergency) production time.

An organization is said to be in a good position if it is working within the regular production plan, while controlling non-regular or emergency production. The latter should not be frequent, and its impact should be minimal. However, if non-regular production frequently emerges, it is time the organization made immediate radical changes at all levels. In the face of such a problem, the manager is to allocate some of the regular production time for non-regular production. By so doing, he can create room for achieving both types of production.

[4] Overhead Time

This type represents the time the manager spends on general secondary activities concerning the future of his organization, its relationship with its environment or society. Examples of such activities are the organization’s social responsibilities and obligations towards charity societies and works as well as attending social functions and symposia. This type of activity occupies a large portion of the manager’s time. Therefore, he should determine how much time he can spend on it, or he can deputize someone instead so that the organization’s social commitment is fulfilled on the one hand, and his time is saved on the other.

To sum up, the effective manager is the one who knows how to utilize and allocate his time effectively to planning future activities (Creative Time), defining the necessary activities to be performed (Preparatory Time), implementing the defined activities (Productive Time) and dispensing communication and social duties (Overhead Time), as a member of society and representative of his organization, between both of which there is mutual commitment.

1. 2 Importance of Time in the Glorious Qur’an

The Qur’an stresses the value of time in a variety of ways and contexts, in relation, for instance to deeds and their means, to administration and organization, to the universe and creation, and to God-man relationship with regard to faith and worship. The following are some illustrations.

1. 2. 1 Time as a Basic Blessing:

According to Islam, Allah’s blessings are countless. The Qur’an says, “and if ye would count the bounty of Allah, ye cannot reckon it.”[22] [20] One of the greatest and most valuable of those blessings is time. It is considered one of the basic blessings. It is described as “the span of life, the scope of man’s existence and the arena of his presence, survival, usefulness and gain. There is in the Qur’an reference to the greatness of that basic blessing of time; its great value, high status and immense significance are reiterated in several Qur’anic Ayahs. “[23] For example, Allah says, “(33) And maketh the sun and the moon, constant in their courses, to be of service unto you, and hath made of service unto you the night and the day.  (34) And He giveth you of all ye ask of Him, and if ye would count the bounty of Allah ye cannot reckon it. Lo! Man is verily a wrong-doer, an ingrate. “[24] Thus, “Reminding man of His great blessings to him, Allah mentions that of day and night, i. e., time, about which and at which we are speaking and through which this huge world is passing from its very beginning to its very end.”[25]

In another Surah, Allah (May He be exalted) says, “(12) And He hath constrained the night and the day and the sun and the moon to be of service unto you, and the stars are made subservient by His command. Lo! Herein indeed are portents for people who have sense. “[26] Such great creations and wonderful signs are put to man’s service and benefit by Allah, their Creator and Controller.

Allah also says, “(62) And He it is Who hath appointed night and day in succession, for him who desireth to remember, or desireth thankfulness.”[27] The succession implies that as one ends, the other starts. [28]

In the following Ayah, Allah states: “(13) Unto Him belongeth whatsoever resteth in the night and the day. He is the Hearer, the Knower. “[29] He owns what exists or occurs within both of them, and He is the Owner of everything. [30]

1. 2. 2 Swearing by Time

Swearing by time in several Qur’anic Ayahs is taken as an indication of its great significance.  For instance, Surat Al-Asr begins with this oath: “(1) By (the Token of) time (through the Ages). (2) Verily Man is in loss. “[31] The following are some more examples:

“(1) By the night enshrouding (2) And the day resplendent.”[32]

“(33) And the night when it withdraweth (34) And the dawn when it shineth forth”[33]

“(17) And the close of night, (18) And the breath of morning”[34]

“(1) By the Dawn (2) And ten nights, “[35]

“(1) By the morning hours (2) And by the night when it is stillest, “[36]

“(17) And by the night and all that it enshroudeth, (18) And by the moon when she is at the full.”[37]

The above examples illustrate how Allah swears by time as a whole and by parts of it, such as day, night, dawn, morning, etc. It is taken for granted that Allah swears by whatever He wills from His creation. Commenting on the oath in Surat Al-Asr [38], Al-Fakhr Al-Raazi maintains that both space and time, which are among Allah’s basic blessings, represent His highest creation. It is by the more honoured of the two that Allah swears, i. e. by time. [39] Regarding Allah’s swearing, Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradhaawi says, “It is agreed among Qur’an specialists, and it is understood by Muslims in general, that when Allah swears by anything in His Kingdom, He is attracting their attention to it and pointing out its benefit and significance.”[40]

1. 2. 3 Time and the Purpose of Creation

According to Islam, man is created for a sublime, noble purpose, which is worshipping Allah through inhabiting the earth. A Muslim’s life involves the two elements, worship and earning a living. As stated in the Qur’an, “(56) I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me. “[41] This implies “their recognition of His being worthy of worship willingly or unwillingly.”[42] Allah also says, “(165) He it is who hath placed you as viceroys of the earth.”[43] This involves unceasing exertion of human efforts for “construction on earth generation after generation, century after century and descendants replacing predecessors.”[44]  

That the acts of worship are allocated specific times reflect the significance of time in the Muslim’s life. The five daily prayers are at the top of those acts. Allah says, “(103) Worship at fixed hours hath been enjoined on the believers.”[45] This means “prayers have to be performed within specific times”[46]  

The distribution of the five daily prayers over five portions of time in one day and night provides the opportunity for the Muslim to reinforce his bond with Allah. Allah is the One who enables him to perform the required acts of worship and to earn his living on earth.  As stated in the Qur’an, “(10) And when the prayer is ended, then disperse in the land and seek of Allah’s bounty, and remember Allah much, that ye may be successful.”[47] In other words, “Once Muslims finish their prayers, they can pursue their livelihood by means of trade and other ways of satisfying their needs.”[48]

Similarly, Zakah, the third pillar of Islam, has a time condition. Zakah is due if one’s wealth reaches a certain ceiling, and if that wealth remains in one’s possession for a whole year.  This is applicable in the case of gold and silver, as well as finished products ready for sale. In the case of agricultural crops, Zakah is due on the harvest day; in this regard, Allah says, “(141)… [P]ay the due thereof upon the harvest day”[49] In other words, people are required to “pay the Zakat due on the crop on the very day of harvest.”[50]

Muslims have to fast during the month of Ramadan. The beginning and the end of the fasting month are timed by the sighting of the crescent. Allah says, “(185)… And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month.”[51]

Hajj, going on pilgrimage to Makkah, is required of a Muslim who can afford it once in a lifetime. It has to be performed within a specific time. [52] Allah says, “(197) The pilgrimage is (in) the well known months.”[53] In addition to the compulsory acts of worship, there are voluntary prayers and sayings which the Muslim does or says in remembrance of Allah in all situations and at all times. These can be seen as a response to Allah’s calls, as in these Qur’anic Ayahs:  

“(17) So glory be to Allah when ye enter the night and when ye enter the morning. (18) Unto Him be praise in the heavens and the earth – and at the sun’s decline and in the noonday. “[54]

“(41) O ye who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance. (42) And glorify Him early and late. “[55]

“(20) Lo! thy Lord knoweth how thou keepest vigil sometimes nearly two thirds of the night, or (sometimes) half or a third thereof, as do a party of those with thee. Allah measureth the night and the day. “[56]

“(7) So when thou art relieved, still toil”[57]

1. 2. 4 Time and Crescents

The Muslim calendar follows the lunar year system, in which the beginning and the end of the month are decided by the sighting of the crescent. The Prophet was asked about the use of crescents. There came a Qur’anic answer: “(189) They ask thee, (O Muhammad), of new moons. Say: They are fixed seasons for mankind and for the pilgrimage. “[58] In other words, “they are signals by which people know when to fast or break their fast and when to perform Hajj.”[59] In addition to timing acts of worship, they are used for timing day-to-day affairs.  Naturally it is days, months and years that man uses for time calculations.  Allah says, “(12) And we appoint the night and the day two portents. Then We make dark the portent of the night, and We make the portent of the day sight-giving, that ye may seek bounty from your Lord, and that ye may know the computation of the years, and the reckoning; and everything have We expounded with a clear expounding. “[60] He also says, “(5) He it is who appointed the sun a splendor and the moon a light, and measured for her stages, that ye might know the number of the years, and the reckoning.”[61] In other words, the sun and the moon are used to learn beginnings and ends of years and computation of days. “[62]

1. 3 Importance of Time in the Purified Sunnah

The issue of time is given a great deal of attention by the Sunnah literature. Let us explore what the Sunnah says about time.

1. 3. 1 Time as a Great Blessing

The Sunnah reiterates what the Qur’an says about time, it is a blessing from Allah, and people are instructed to preserve it and are held responsible for it.

On the authority of Ibn-Abbas, the Prophet said, “Health and leisure time are two blessings on which a lot of people are cheated.”[63]

The Hadith implies: “Only a few benefit from those blessings. For example, some people are healthy, but are not occupied with earning their living. Others want to be rich, but are not healthy enough to work for it. If they do not have the health or the desire to seek wealth, they are absolute losers. “[64]

Such losers are compared to one who buys at a price much higher than that of the market price, but sells at a price much lower. [65]

Also, in that Hadith, “The Prophet compares the case of the Muslim’s religious responsibilities to those of the businessman. The businessman has some capital for investment in trade. He wants to make profit and keep his original capital secure. To achieve his objectives, he has to be sure of whom he trades with, has to prove himself trustworthy and has to be clever enough to avoid being an absolute loser. Similarly, the Muslim’s capital is health and time, and in his business with Allah, he has to trust in Him completely, resist his own temptations as well as Satan’s so that he can gain the benefits of this world and of the Hereafter. “[66]

Thus, if one has a healthy body and has no impediment, but does not make the effort to invest his health and time to improve his lot in this world and the hereafter, he is an absolute loser in the eyes of Islam.

1. 3. 2 Time as a Great Responsibility

A Muslim’s time is a trust for which he has to account on the Day of Resurrection. This view is confirmed by the Sunnah. Of the questions a Muslim will be asked that Day, two are concerned with time.

In one Hadith, the Prophet said, “On the Day of Resurrection the feet of the son of Adam [man] will not move away till he is questioned about four matters: how he spent his lifetime, how he spent his youth, from where he acquired his wealth and how he spent it, and what he did with his knowledge. “[67] Thus, Muslims will not escape being questioned about how they spent their lives, particularly their youth, as it is the period of strength, vitality and activity. During this period, one’s work is more significant than during the other stages. That one will be specifically asked about one’s youth – he will be questioned about his life in general – indicates how important the youth stage is.       

1. 3. 3. Time as a Vehicle for Worship:

In Islam, the daily prayers, fasting and pilgrimage, as well as other forms of worship, have fixed times within which they have to be performed. If not done within the prescribed time, some of those acts are not valid. The right time is a condition for their validity.

The Prophet usually urged Muslims to perform such acts of worship within the specified time.  When asked about the best thing one could do, he replied, “[The compulsory] prayers on time.”[68] Whenever he sighted the crescent, he said, “O Allah, bring with it good things, blessings, safety and Islam. Allah is your God and mine. “[69] About the crescent he said, “Start your fast if you sight it [the Ramadan crescent], and end your fasting month if you sight it [the Shawwal crescent]. [70]

Urging Muslims to wake up during the night for Allah’s remembrance, the Prophet said, “Man is nearest to his Lord during the last portion of night, so if you can remember Allah at that time, then do it.”[71]

Also urging Muslims to take the opportunity of the first ten days of the month of Thul-Hijjah for doing good deeds, the Prophet said, “There is no work better than that done in those days.” “They asked the Prophet: Even better than Jihad (fighting for Allah’s cause)?” “He replied: Better than Jihad, except a man who went out, committing body and wealth to fighting for Allah’s cause, but neither his body nor wealth returned.”[72]

1. 3. 4 Time in the Prophet’s Actions 

Prophet Muhammad was the most careful about his time. Never did he spend any time without doing something for Allah’s sake, or something necessary for bettering his own life.  Describing the Prophet’s dealing with time, Ali Ibn- Abi-Taalib said, “When he gets home, he divides his time into three portions: one for Allah, one for his family and one for himself, and he divides his own portion between himself and the people.”[73]

The Prophet committed himself to filling his time with worship and remembrance of Allah.  According to Aisha, he used to wake up during the night and pray so much that his feet became swollen. She told him: “Why are you doing all of this even though Allah has already forgiven all your sins, past and future ones?” He replied, “Shouldn’t I be grateful for this?”[74]

1. 3. 5 Allocating and Organizing Time     

The Prophet called upon Muslims to organize their time and to utilize it for worthy matters in public and private affairs. Abdullah Ibn-Amr Ibn-Al-’As reported: “The Prophet came in and said to me, ‘Is it true that you stay up all night praying, and fast all day?’ I replied, ‘True. ’ He said, ‘Do not do that. Wake up and pray during the night and sleep, and fast and break your fast. Give your body its right, your eyes their right, your guests [75] their right and your wife her right. ’ “[76] Muslims ought not to disturb that balance. In fact, they ought to divide their time in order to give those rights without infringing on any of them. The division of time does not have to be into equal portions. An appropriate balance has to be struck in such a way that leads to fulfilling as much as possible all of those rights. 

Of what Prophet Muhammad reported about Prophet Ibraheem (Abraham) is the latter’s saying: “A wise person (if not out of his mind) has to apportion his time: time for praying to his Lord, time for questioning himself, time for reflecting on Allah’s creation and time for his food and drink. “[77]

When organizing time, there should be some time for rest and recreation, for one becomes bored in prolonged seriousness, and hearts, like bodies, become bored too. Therefore, some fun and recreational activities of the admissible type are necessary. According to Hanthalah, he went to the Prophet and said: “O Allah’s Messenger, Hanthalah has become a hypocrite?” Allah’s Messenger asked: “What is the matter?” I answered: “O Allah’s Messenger, when we are with you as you remind us of Heaven and Hell, we feel as if we see them with our own eyes. However, when we leave you, we become involved [78] with our wives, children and gardens, so we forget a lot. “Allah’s Messenger replied: “By the One in Whose hand my soul is, if you continued the way you were with me and in the remembrance time, the angels would be shaking hands with you in your beds and streets, but O Hanthalah, time [for this] and time [for that]. ” He said it three times. [79]

Thus, the Prophet used to teach his Companions that the heart can become bored and tired, and it changes. Therefore, it ought to be looked after and entertained from time to time, but by means of what Allah has allowed. The Companions comprehended his teachings and applied them in their daily life. On the authority of Ali Ibn-Abi-Taalib, the Prophet said, “Give your hearts a rest; if forced, they become blind.”[80] He is also reported to have said, “Hearts are sometimes energetic and forthcoming, and sometimes lull and unforthcoming; take them when they are energetic and forthcoming, but leave them when they are not.”[81] According to Abu-Addarda’, the Prophet said, “I sometimes get recreation from something trivial that is not forbidden, but it turns out to be truth invigorating.”[82]

1. 3. 6 Encouraging Utilization of Time and Warning Against Wasting It      

Of the well-known Hadiths calling for grabbing the opportunity for investing time is the one related by Ibn-Abbas; the Prophet said, “Grab five things before five others: your youth before your decrepitude, your health before your illness, your wealth before your poverty, your leisure before your work, and your life before your death. “[83]

This Hadith, like many others, is typically brief, yet comprehensive and loaded with meaning.  It succinctly expresses in brief what specialists have presented in manuscripts. It points out the importance of time and the initiative to invest it, together with the importance of utilizing the power of the youth stage and leisure time in fruitful good work. It also warns against five obstacles that prevent proper utilization of time.   

The Prophet used to call on Muslims to take the initiative to do good deeds before any obstacles arise. For instance, he said, “Lose no time to do good deeds before you are caught up by one of seven calamities awaiting you: a starvation which may impair your wisdom; a prosperity which may mislead you; an ailment which may damage your health; an old age which may harm your senses; a sudden death; the Dajjal (Antichrist); or Doomsday, which is indeed the hardest and most bitter.”[84]

The above Hadith urges Muslims to take the initiative, and not to delay good deeds; man’s life is not free from impediments, such as those calamities, which can prevent him from accomplishing what could have been done earlier. Wise are those who grab available opportunities before being handicapped by obstacles. 

In one Hadith, the Prophet said, “If one becomes worried, he hurries up, and if he hurries up, he sooner reaches his destination.”[85] Explaining this Hadith, Attayyibi [86] says: “The Prophet gave this as an example to illustrate man’s journey to a safe haven in the afterlife. Satan, supported by man’s evil desires and wishful thinking, obstructs his way. If he is fully aware and has kept purity of intention regarding his deeds, he is safe from Satan’s conniving. “[87]

The example can be true in the case of a person who has set himself targets, yet is worried lest obstacles should obstruct reaching those targets. He, therefore, makes a greater effort in order to reach them.

The Prophet always demanded that work should start early in the morning. On the authority of Sukhr Al-Ghamidi: “The Prophet said, ‘O Allah, bless my nation’s early rising. ’ If he dispatched an army or a division, he did that early in the morning.

“Sukhr was a merchant who used to do his business early in the morning, and he made good profit and became rich. [88]

Aisha reported a Hadith with a similar meaning; the Prophet said, “Rise early to earn your living and do your affairs, for it brings about blessing and success.”[89]

Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter, said that when he saw her still lying in bed one morning, he told her, “My daughter, get up and witness your Lord’s bounty, and do not be among the indifferent; Allah distributes daily bread between the break of dawn and sunrise. “[90]


[1] Frederic Taylor (1856-1915) was an American engineer, the author of Scientific Principles of Management (1911).  See: Sameer Ahmad Askar, Fundamentals of Management, in Arabic, p. 36.

فردريك تايلور: ارتبطت أفكار الإدارة العلمية باسم تايلور (1856 – 1915م)، وكان يعمل مهندساً بإحدى شركات الصلب الأمريكية، وأوضح في كتابه مبادئ الإدارة العلمية الذي نشره عام (1911م) أن الهدف الأساس للإدارة هو الحصول على أكبر رفاهية ممكنة لصاحب العمل مصحوبة بأكبر رفاهية ممكنة للعامل. انظر: (عسكر، سمير أحمد، أصول الإدارة، دار القلم، دبي، 1987م، ص 36).

[2] Hennery Fayole (1841-1925) was a French engineer, the author of General and Industrial Management (1916)

هنري فايول: مهندس فرنسي (1841 – 1925م) استطاع من خلال عمله – كبير مهندسي شركة الحديد والفحم بفرنسا – أن يوجد مجموعة من المبادئ والقواعد الإدارية التي لا تزال تعد نموذجاً للدارسين في العالم وقام بنشر مؤلفه عام (1916م) بعنوان (الإدارة العامة والصناعية). انظر:  (وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، المطبعة العلمية، دمشق، دت، ص18. وعسكر،سمير أحمد، أصول الإدارة،مرجع سابق، ص38. وعقيلي، عمر وصفي، الإدارة أصول وأسس ومفاهيم، دار زهران، عمّان، 1997م، ص94).

[3] Al-Bura’i, M. Abdullah:  Principles of Management and Leadership in Islam, in Arabic, 1996, p. 19.

انظر: البرعي، محمد عبد الله، مبادئ الإدارة والقيادة في الإسلام، مطابع الحميضي، الرياض، ط2، 1416هـ – 1996م،  ص 19.

[4] Al-Qarni, Abdullah Mohamed: Dearer Than Gold, (1999), p. 13.

القرني، عبد الله محمد، أغلى من الذهب، دار الوطن، الرياض، ط1، 1420هـ – 1999م، ص 13.

[5] Attabarani, Abul-Qasim: Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer (The Great Dictionary), in Arabic, investigated by Hamdy A. Assalafi, 1983, Vol. 20, p. 61.

الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد [260 – 360هـ]، المعجم الكبير،  تحقيق حمدي بن عبد المجيد السلفي، مكتبة ابن تيمية، القاهرة، ط2، 1404هـ 1983م، [1 25]، رقم الحديث (111)، ج20 ص61.

Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa Mohammad Ibn-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, in Arabic, Investigated by Ahmad Mohammad Shakir, Maktabat wa Matba’at Mustafa Al-Halabi, 2nd. Edition, 1398 H, Book 38, Chapter 1, Hadith No. 2417, Vol. 4, p. 612. The Hadith is classified as good and sound.

الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة [209- 279 هـ]، سنن أبى داود، تحقيق أحمد محمد شاكر، مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى الحلبي، ط2، 1398هـ، كتاب(38)، باب (1)، رقم الحديث (2417)، ج4 ص 612، وقال هذا حديث حسن صحيح.

[6] Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak, in Arabic, investigated by Mustafa A. Ata, 1990, Vol. 4, p. 341).

الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري [320- 405هـ]، المستدرك على الصحيحين، تحقيق مصطفى عبد القادر عطا،  دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1411هـ 1990م، [1-4]، رقم الحديث (7846)، ج4 ص 341. و قال هذا صحيح على شرط الشيخين و لم يخرجاه، ووافقه الذهبى.

[7] Surat An-Nisaa’, Ayah 58                                                                                                  سورة النساء [58]

[8] Surat Al-Muzzamil, Ayah 20                                                                                     سورة المزمل الآية [20]

[9] Annahwi, Adnan Ali Ridha: Understanding Faith Management of the Islamic Call, (in Arabic), 1999, p. 37.

النحوي، عدنان علي رضا، فقه الإدارة الإيمانية في الدعوة الإسلامية، دار النحوي للنشر والتوزيع، ط1، 1419هـ – 1999م، الرياض، ص 37.

[10] Ibn-Al-Mubarak, Abdullah: Azzuhd (Asceticism), in Arabic, investigated by Habeeburrahman Al-A’zami, 1998, p. 51.

ابن المبارك، عبد الله بن المبارك بن واضح المروزي أبو عبد الله [118 – 181هـ]، الزهد، تحقيق حبيب الرحمن الأعظمي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1419هـ – 1998م، ص51.

[11] Hilal, A. Hassan: Skills of Time Management, in Arabic, 1995, p. 11

هلال، عبد الغني حسن، مهارات إدارة الوقت، مركز تطوير الأداء والتنمية، القاهرة، 1995م، ص 11، بتصرّف.

[12] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, in Arabic, 1991, p. 28.

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م، ص 28.

[13] Ibid, p. 28.

[14] Webster’s New World College Dictionary, op. cit. , p. 1400.

[15] Asfure, M. Shakir: Time Management in Government Agencies, in Arabic, 1402 H. , p. 116.

عصفور، محمد شاكر، إدارة الوقت في الأجهزة الحكومية، ندوة الدوام الرسمي في الأجهزة الحكومية، الرياض، 1402هـ، ص116.

[16] Salama, S. Ben-Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, in Arabic, 1988, p. 16.

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، المنظمة العربية للعلوم الإدارية، إدارة البحو والدراسات، عمان، 1988م، ص 16.

[17] Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf: Time in the Muslim’s Life, in Arabic, 1997, p. 10.

القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط7، 1417هـ – 1997م، ص 10.

[18] Salama, S. Ben-Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op. cit. , p. 9.

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص9.

[19] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad: Time Management, op. cit. , p. 25.

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 25.

[20] Drucker, P. , The Effective Executive, N. Y.: Harper and Row, 1982, P. 26

[21] Salama, S. Ben-Fahd: Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op. cit. , pp. 31-33.

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص 31-33

[22] Surat Ibrahim, Ayah 34                                                                                            سورة إبراهيم الآية [34]

[23] Abu-Ghaddah, Abdulfattah: The Value of Time in the Eyes of Scholars, in Arabic, 1996, p. 17.

أبو غدة، عبد الفتاح، قيمة الزمن عند العلماء، مكتب المطبوعات الإسلامية، حلب، ط7، 1417هـ-  1996م، ص17.

[24] Surat Ibrahim, Ayahs 33-34                                                                           سورة  إبراهيم الآيات [33 – 34]

[25] Abu-Ghaddah, Abdulfattah: The Value of Time in the Eyes of Scholars, op. cit. , p. 17.

أبو غدة، عبد الفتاح، قيمة الزمن عند العلماء، مرجع سابق،  ص17.

[26] Surat An-Nahl, Ayah 12                                                                                             سورة النحل الآية [12]

[27] Surat Al-Furqan, Ayah 62                                                                                        سورة الفرقان الآية [62]

[28] Assaabuniو M. A. and S. A. Ridha: Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, in Arabic, 1985, Vol. 2, p. 157.

الصابوني،  محمد علي، و صالح أحمد رضا، مختصر تفسير الطبري، عالم الكتب، ط1، 1415هـ – 1985م، ج2 ص157.

[29] Surat Al-An’am, Ayah 13                                                                                         سورة الأنعام الآية [13]

[30] Assaabuniو M. A. and S. A. Ridha: Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, op. cit, Vol. 1, p. 317.

الصابوني،  محمد علي، و صالح أحمد رضا، مختصر تفسير الطبري، مرجع سابق، ج1 ص 317.

[31] Surat Al-Asr, Ayahs 1-2                                               سورة العصر الآيات [1 – 2]

[32] Surat Al-Layl, Ayahs 1-2                                               سورة الليل الآيات [1 – 2]

[33] Surat Al-Muddathir, Ayahs 33-34                            سورة المدثِّر الآيات [33 – 34]

[34] Surat At-Takweer, Ayahs 17-18                            سورة التكوير الآيات [17 – 18]

[35] Surat Al-Fajr, Ayahs 1-2                                              سورة الفجر الآيات [1 – 2]

[36] Surat Ad-Dhuha, Ayahs 1-2                                      سورة الضحى الآيات [1 – 2]

[37] Surat Al-Inshiqaq, Ayahs 16-17                          سورة الانشقاق الآيات [16 – 17]

[38] Surat Al-Asr, Ayahs 1-2                                             سورة العصر الآيات [1 – 2]

[39] Arraazi, M. Fakhruddin: Mafateeh Al-Ghaib (Keys to the Unseen) in Arabic, 1994, Vol. 32, p. 85.

انظر: الرازي، محمد فخر الدين [544 – 604هـ]، مفاتيح الغيب، دار الفكر، بيروت، 1414هـ-  1994م ،ج32 ص85.

[40] Al-Qaradhaawi, Yusuf: Time in the Muslim’s Life, op. cit. , p. 5

القرضاوي، يوسف، الوقت في حياة المسلم، مرجع سابق، ص 5

[41] Surat Ath-Thariat, Ayah 56                                                                                    سورة الذاريات الآية [56]

[42] Ibn-Katheer, Abul-Fida: Explanation of the Glorious Qur’an, Vol. 4, p. 255.

ابن كثير، أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن كثير القرشي [ت 774هـ]، تفسير القرآن العظيم، دار المعرفة، بيروت، ط1، 1406هـ، ج4 ص255.

[43] Surat Al-An’am, Ayah 165                                                                                     سورة الأنعام الآية [165]

[44] Ibn-Katheer, Abul-Fida: Explanation of the Glorious Qur’an, op. cit, Vol. 2, p. 208.

ابن كثير، أبو الفداء إسماعيل بن كثير القرشي، تفسير القرآن العظيم، مرجع سابق، ج 2 ص 208.

[45] Surat An-Nisa’, Ayah 103                                                                                       سورة النساء الآية [103]

[46] Al-Qurtubi, M. Ibn-Ahmad: A Comprehensive Book of Qur’anic Rulings, in Arabic, 1987, Vol. 5, p. 374.

القرطبي، محمد بن أحمد [ت671 هـ]، الجامع لأحكام القرآن، الهيئة المصريّة العامّة للكتاب – مركز تحقيق التراث، ط 3، 1987م، [1 – 20]،  ج 5 ص 374.

[47] Surat Al-Jumu’ah, Ayah 10                                                                                      سورة الجمعة الآية [10]

[48] Al-Qurtubi, M. Ibn-Ahmad: A Comprehensive Book of Qur’anic Rulings, op. cit. , Vol. 18, p. 108.

القرطبي، محمد بن أحمد، الجامع لأحكام القرآن، مرجع سابق، ج 18 ص 108.

[49] Surat Al-An’am, Ayah 141                                                                                     سورة الأنعام الآية [141]

[50] Assaabuniو M. A. and S. A. Ridha: Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, op. cit, Vol. 1, p. 355.

الصابوني،  محمد علي، و صالح أحمد رضا، مختصر تفسير الطبري، مرجع سابق، ج1 ص 355.

[51] Surat Al-Baqarah, Ayah 185                                                                                    سورة البقرة الآية [185]

[52] Al-Qurtubi, M. Ibn-Ahmad: A Comprehensive Book of Qur’anic Rulings, op. cit. , Vol. 2, p. 405.

انظر: القرطبي، محمد بن أحمد، الجامع لأحكام القرآن، مرجع سابق، ج2 ص 405.

[53] Surat Al-Baqarah, Ayah 197                                                                                    سورة البقرة الآية [197]

[54] Surat Ar-Rum, Ayahs 17-18                                                                               سورة الروم الآيات [17-18]

[55] Surat Al-Ahzab, Ayahs 41-42                                                                        سورة الأحزاب الآيات [41-42]

[56] Surat Al-Muzzammil, Ayah 20                                                                                سورة المزمل الآية [20]

[57] Surat Ash-Sharh, Ayah 7                                                                                            سورة الشرح الآية [7]

[58] Surat Al-Baqarah, Ayah 189                                                                                    سورة البقرة الآية [189]

[59] Assaabuniو M. A. and S. A. Ridha: Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, Op. Cit, Vol. 1, p. 89.

الصابوني،  محمد علي، و صالح أحمد رضا، مختصر تفسير الطبري، مرجع سابق، ج1 ص 89.

[60] Surat Al-Isra’, Ayah 12                                   سورة الإسراء الآية [12]

[61] Surat Yunus, Ayah 5                                            سورة يونس الآية [5]

[62] Assaabuniو M. A. and S. A. Ridha: Attabari’s Abridged Explanation, Op. Cit, Vol. 1, p. 493.

الصابوني،  محمد علي، و صالح أحمد رضا، مختصر تفسير الطبري، مرجع سابق، ج1 ص 493.

[63] Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 81, Chapter 1, Hadith No. 6412, p. 1232.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل [194-256هـ]، صحيح البخاري ، اعتنى به أبو صهيب الكرمي، بيت الأفكار الدولية، 1419هـ-1998م ، كتاب (81)، باب (1)، رقم الحديث (6412)، ص 1232.

[64] Ibn-Hajar, A. A. Al-Asqalani: Fat-hulbari Fi Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari, in Arabic, investigated by F. Abdulbaqi and M. Al-Khateeb, dar Al-Ma’rifah, Beirut, 1379 H. Book 81, chapter 1,  Explanation of Hadith No. 6412, Vol. 11, p. 234

ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني [773 – 852 هـ]، فتح الباري شرح صحيح البخاري، تحقيق محمد فؤاد عبد الباقي ومحب الدين الخطيب، دار المعرفة، بيروت، 1379هـ، كتاب (81)، باب (1)، شرح الحديث ذي الرقم (6412)، ج11 ص234.

[65] Assindi, Abul-Hassan: Explanation of Sunan Ibn-Majah, investigated by Ma’Mun Shiha, in Arabic, 1997, Vol. 4, pp. 454-455.

السندي، أبو الحسن نور الدين محمد بن عبد الهادي [ت1138هـ]، شرح سنن ابن ماجه، تحقيق خليل مأمون شيحا، دار المعرفة، بيروت، 1418هـ – 1997م، [1 – 4]، ج4 ص 454 – 455.

[66] Ibn-Hajar, A. A. Al-Asqalani: Fat-hulbari Fi Sharh Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 81, chapter 1, explanation of Hadith No. 6412, Vol. 11, p. 234.

ابن حجر، أحمد بن علي بن حجر العسقلاني، فتح الباري شرح صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (81)، باب (1) شرح الحديث ذي الرقم (6412)، ج11 ص234.

[67] Attabarani, Abul-Qasim: Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer (The Great Dictionary), Vol. 20, p. 61.

الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد، المعجم الكبير، مرجع سابق، رقم الحديث(111)، ج20 ص61.

Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, in Arabic, investigated by A. M. Shakir, 1398, Book No. 38, Chapter 1, Hadith No. 2417, Vol. 4, p. 612.

الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة [209 – 279 هـ]، سنن الترمذي، تحقيق أحمد محمد شاكر، مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى الحلبي، ط2، 1398هـ، كتاب(38)، باب (1)، رقم الحديث(2417)، ج4 ص 612، وقال هذا حديث حسن صحيح.

[68] Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 97, Chapter 48, Hadith No. 7534, p. 1439.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (97)، باب(48)، رقم الحديث (7534)، ص 1439.

[69] Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunan Attermidhi, in Arabic, investigated by A. M. Shakir, 1398, Book No. 49, Chapter 51, Hadith No. 3451, Vol. 5, p. 504.

الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة [209 – 279 هـ]، سنن الترمذي، تحقيق أحمد محمد شاكر، مكتبة ومطبعة مصطفى الحلبي، ط2، 1398هـ، كتاب (49)، باب (51)، رقم الحديث (3451)، ج5 ص 504، وقال هذا حديث حسن غريب.

[70] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 30, Chapter 11, Hadith No. 1909, p. 362.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (30)، باب(11)، رقم الحديث (1909)، ص 362.

والقشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، مرجع سابق،  كتاب (13)، باب (2)، رقم الحديث (1081)، ج2 ص 762.

[71] Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: ٍSunan Attermidhi, 1398, Book No. 49, Chapter 119, Hadith No. 3579, Vol. 5, pp. 569-570.

الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي، مرجع سابق،  كتاب (49)، باب (119)، رقم الحديث (3579)، ج5 ص 569 – 570، وصححه.

[72] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 13, Chapter 11, Hadith No. 969, p. 193.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (13)، باب(11)، رقم الحديث (969)، ص 193.

[73] Attabarani, Abul-Qasim: Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer (The Great Dictionary), op. cit, Vol. 22, p. 157.

الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد، المعجم الكبير، مرجع سابق، ج22 ص157.

Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein: Branches of Faith,  1st. ed. , investigated by M. S. B. Zaghlul, Vol. 2, Chapter 14, Hadith No. 1430, p. 156.

البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين [384 – 458هـ]، شعب الإيمان، تحقيق محمد السعيد بسيوني زغلول، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ، [1 – 8]، باب (14)، رقم الحديث (1430)، ج2 ص 156.

[74] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 65, Chapter 2, Hadith No. 4837, p. 950.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (65)، باب (2)، رقم الحديث (4837)، ص950.

[75] Ibn Hajar: Fat-hulbari, op. cit. , Vol. 11, p. 548.

لزورك: الزّور الأضياف والزوار. انظر: (ابن حجر، فتح الباري، مرجع سابق، ج 11 ص 548 ).

[76] Sahih Al-Bukhari, op. cit. , Book 78, Chapter 84, Hadith No. 6134, p. 1183.

البخاري، محمد بن إسماعيل، صحيح البخاري، مرجع سابق، كتاب (78)، باب(84)، رقم الحديث (6134)، ص 1183.

[77] Ibn-Bilban, Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, investigated by Shu’aib Al-Arna’ut, 1997, Vol. 2, p. 78, Hadith No. 361.

ابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي [ت739هـ]، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1418هـ – 1997م، [1 – 18]، رقم الحديث (361)، ج2 ص 78.

Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein: Branches of Faith, investigated by M. S. B. Zaghlul, Vol. 4, Chapter 33, Hadith No. 4677, p. 164.

البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين [384 – 458هـ]، شعب الإيمان، تحقيق محمد السعيد بسيوني زغلول، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ، [1 – 8]، باب (33)، رقم الحديث (4677)، ج4 ص 164.

[78] Al-Qamus Al-Muheet, 2nd. Edition, Chapter C, Section ’Ain, Beirut, Muassasat Arrisalah, 1987.

عافسنا الأزواج والأولاد والضيعات: أي خالطناهم، قال في القاموس: تعافسوا: تعالجوا في الصراع، والمعافسة المعالجة. انظر: (الفيروز أبادي، مجد الدين محمد بن يعقوب[729 – 817 هـ]، القاموس المحيط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط2، 1407هـ – 1987م، ص 720، باب السين، فصل العين).

[79] Al-Qushairi, Muslim: Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, Book 49, Chapter 3, Hadith No. 2750, p. 2106.

القشيري، مسلم بن الحجاج النيسابوري، صحيح مسلم، مرجع سابق، كتاب (49)، باب (3)، رقم الحديث (2750)، ج4 ص. 2106

[80] Ibn-Abdulbar, Abu-Omar Al-Qurtubi: Pleasure and Entertainment of Assemblies, investigated by Mohamed M. Al-Khuli, p. 115.

ابن عبد البر، أبو عمر يوسف بن عبد الله بن محمد بن عبد البر النمري القرطبي [368 – 463 هـ]، بهجة المجَالس وأنس المُجَالس، تحقيق محمد مرسي الخولي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، دت، ص115.

[81] Ibid. , p. 115                                         المرجع نفسه، ص 115

[82] Ibid. , p. 115                                         المرجع نفسه، ص 115

[83] Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak, op. cit. , Book No. 44, Vol. 4, p. 341.

الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين،  مرجع سابق، كتاب (44)، رقم الحديث (7846)، ج4 ص 341،  وقال: هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرّجاه.

[84] Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, in Arabic, Book No. 37, Chapter 3, Hadith No. 2306, Vol. 4, p. 553.

الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي ، مرجع سابق، كتاب (37)، باب (3)، رقم الحديث (2306)، ج4 ص 553، وقال: هذا حديث حسن غريب.

Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein:  , 1st. ed. , investigated by M. S. B. Zaghlul, Vol. 7, Chapter 71, Hadith No. 10572, p. 357.

البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين [384 – 458هـ]، باب شعب الإيمان، تحقيق محمد السعيد بسيوني زغلول، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ، [1 – 8]، (71)، رقم الحديث (10572)، ج7 ص 357.

[85] Attermidhi, Abu-Eesa: Sunnan Attermidhi, in Arabic, Book     No. 38, Chapter 18, Hadith No. 2450, Vol. 4, p. 633.

الترمذي، أبو عيسى محمد بن عيسى بن سورة، سنن الترمذي، مرجع سابق، كتاب (38)، باب (18)، رقم الحديث (2450)، ج4 ص 633، وقال: هذا حديث حسن غريب.

Al-Hakim, M. Abdullah: Al-Mustadrak, op. cit. , Book No. 44, Vol. 4, أ  Hadith No. (7851), p. 343.

الحاكم، محمد بن عبد الله النيسابوري، المستدرك على الصحيحين،  مرجع سابق، كتاب (44)، رقم الحديث (7851)، ج 4 ص 343.  وقال هذا حديث صحيح الاسناد ولم يخرجاه، ووافقه الذهبى.

[86] Sharafuddin Hassan Ibn-Mohammad Attayyibi is the author of Attasaneef (Classifications) – he died in 743 H.  See: Al-Qustanteeni, M. Ibn-Abdullah: Kashf Aththunun ‘An Asami Al-Kutub wal-Funun (Name-Finder of Books and Arts), in Arabic, Vol. 1, p. 720.

الطيبي: شرف الدين حسن بن محمد الطيبي، صاحب التصانيف المتوفى سنة 743هـ. انظر: (القسطنطيني، مصطفى بن عبد الله  [1017  -1067هـ]، كشف الضنون عن أسامي الكتب والفنون، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، 1413هـ – 1992م، [1 – 2]، ج1 ص720 ).

[87] Al-Mubarakafuri, M. Abdurrahman: Tuhfat Al-Ahwathi fi Sharh Jam’i At-Termidhi, (The Witty’s Explanation of At-Termidhi Collection), in Arabic, 1990, Vol. 7, pp. 123-124, Explanation of Hadith No. 2567.

المباركفوري، محمد عبد الرحمن، تحفة الأحوذي بشرح جامع الترمذي، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ – 1990م،    [1 – 10]، شرح الحديث ذي الرقم (2567)، ج7 ص123 – 124.

[88] Abu-Dawud, Sulaiman: Sunan Abi-Dawud, Index by Kamal Yusuf AL-Hut, 1409 H. , Vol. 2, Book 9, Hadith No. 2606, p. 41.

أبو داود،  سليمان بن أشعث السجستاني، سنن أبي داود، فهرسة كمال يوسف الحوت، دار الجنان، 1409هـ، كتاب (9)، رقم الحديث (2606)، ج2 ص 41.

Ibn-Bilban, Alladin: Sahih Ibn-Hibban as Arranged by Ibn-Bilban, 3rd. ed. , investigated by Shu’aib Al-Arna’ut, 1997, Vol. 11, p. 62, Hadith No. 4754.

ابن بلبان، الأمير علاء الدين علي بن بلبان الفارسي [ت739هـ]، صحيح ابن حبان بترتيب ابن بلبان، تحقيق شعيب الأرنؤوط، مؤسسة الرسالة، بيروت، ط3، 1418هـ – 1997م، [1 – 18]، رقم الحديث (4754)، ج11 ص 62.

[89] Attabrani, Abul-Qasim: Intermediate Dictionary, investigated by Tariq Ibn-Awadallah and A. Al-Husseini, 1415H.  Vol. 7, Hadith No. 7250, pp. 193-194.

الطبراني، أبو القاسم سليمان بن أحمد [260 – 360 هـ]، المعجم الأوسط، تحقيق طارق بن عوض الله وعبد المحسن الحسيني، دار الحرمين، القاهرة، 1415هـ [1 – 10]، رقم الحديث (7250)، ج7 ص193-194.

[90] Al-Baihaqi, A. A. Ibn-Al-Hussein: Branches of Faith, investigated by M. S. B. Zaghlul, Vol. 4, Chapter 33,  Hadith No. 4735, p. 181.

البيهقي، أبو بكر أحمد بن الحسين [384 – 458هـ]، باب شعب الإيمان، تحقيق محمد السعيد بسيوني زغلول، دار الكتب العلمية، بيروت، ط1، 1410هـ، [1 8]، (33) ،رقم الحديث (4735)، ج4 ص 181.  و اسناده ضعيف                                       

 

 

 



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