Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives, part (2)

Time Management from Islamic and Administrative Perspectives

Part (2)

By: Dr. Wahid A. Al-Hindi, Professor of Public Administration, Chairperson of Public Administration Department, College of Administrative Sciences, King Saud University

 

Chapter 2

Time in Administrative Thought

*     Introduction

The concept of time varies among individuals in terms of their motivation, needs and the nature of their professions. It varies also among cultures. Performance is administratively conceived as time-oriented. “Unutilized or wasted time represents a problem, for it cannot be brought back. Managers realize that proper management of time is crucial for increasing productivity. [1]

This chapter is comprised of the following sections:

2.1 Management and Time Management

2.2 Time in Administration Theories

2.3 Time Management within the Administrative Process

*     2.1 Management and Time Management

2.1.1 Management: Definition and Concept

With regard to the definition of management, there are various views and orientations. Administration literature includes a large number of definitions. Every researcher in the field of administration has his own definition, based on his view of what constitutes the management function and his basic understanding of the management.

With regard to the definition of management, administration literature reveals various views and orientations. Each researcher in the field of administration constructs his own definition in the light of his understanding of management structure and process. The resulting varied definitions can be explained in terms of the following:

[1] As a discipline, administration is relatively new. This has not given scholars and researchers sufficient time to reach a comprehensive definition. Besides, management has been learnt through practice for ages.

[2] Management covers all walks of life: the economic, the social and the service fields. In addition, that management is so inclusive and that the nature of work in those fields is varied delay reaching a comprehensive definition and a complete agreement on related concepts and principles.

[3] The discipline of administration is classified among the humanities, not the natural sciences. It deals with man as an independent entity on the one hand, and as a member of a work group, which exercises pressure that affects him on the other hand. It studies human personality and behaviour, which are characterized by constant mobility and change. This has resulted in varied concepts of human nature, behaviour and motivation.

The following are some definitions taken from pioneers of administrative thought:

Frederick Taylor defines management as: “knowing exactly what you want men to do, and then sing that they do it in the best and cheapest way”[2]

Henry Fayol defines management by defining the manager’s function: “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to coordinate and control.”[3]

Koontz and O’Donnell [4] view management as “a consecutive and integrated series of activities that begin by defining objectives, then identifying how to reach them through preparing the activities of planning, organizing, directing and control. Such activities are called the management process.”[5]

Ali Abdulwahab defines management as: “A continuous social process concerned with the optimal utilization of available resources by means of planning, organizing, leading and control in order to achieve a defined objective.”[6]

In the light of what has been mentioned so far, and in the light of those definitions, past and present, modern management should be viewed from an integrated and comprehensive perspective that accommodates the various views. Also, attention is given to management as a mental activity seeking optimal utilization of all available resources and potentials of the organization with the highest degree of efficiency and the least possible costs. As an essential element of those resources and potentials, time is to be effectively invested. Failure to do that will result in dramatic increase of costs.

Thus, a proper definition of management from the author’s point of view should take into consideration the previously mentioned definitions regarding the execution of the elements of the management process in order to achieve the defined objectives by means of optimal utilization of available resources.

Management involves inseparable work and time. No work can be done without time, nor can any action be taken except within a defined time framework. [7] Time as such cannot be perceived by the senses, but can only be conceived by the mind. What, then, is the reality of time?

2.1.2 Time Management: Definition and Concept

The importance of time management is steadily increasing at the personal and the institutional levels, including managers at the top as well as supervisors at the bottom. In the field of administration, with which we are concerned, time is not easy to define. When discussing the scarcity of resources, due attention must be given to the scarcest of resources, i. e. the time of competent managers. 

As Drucker maintains, “Time is the scarcest resource. If it is not managed, nothing else will be managed.”[8] Good management of time is useful both for economizing on costs and for proper utilization of other resources. If we analyze the factors of production (financial resources, equipment and machinery, raw materials, time and human resources), time will emerge as the sole element that is equally distributed among humans. However, the question remains: who is responsible for the utilization of time, and how efficiently and effectively is it utilized? The human resource element within an organization is responsible for the efficient and effective utilization of available resources. Therefore, it can be safely concluded that efficiency of human resources positively reflects on the overall performance of their organization. This serves the organization’s goals, in which all available resources, including time, are invested. 

In spite of its great importance, time is the most wasted and the least invested element at both the organizational and the ordinary individual levels. This can be attributed to a variety of reasons; a significant reason is insufficient awareness of the immediate costs resulting from time’s improper investment.

There are several definitions of time management. For instance, Helmer defines it as “defining and establishing priorities for our objectives so that more time can be allocated to major tasks, and less time to minor ones.”[9]

As defined by Suhail Salamah, time management “is the effective investment of time into the achievement of defined objectives within the allocated period of time.”[10]

Taking into account Islamic and administrative views, Malaekah defines time management as “the planning of using time and how to utilize it effectively for the purpose of making life productive and useful in this world and the Hereafter for us and for those around us, particularly the ones in our care.”[11]

Time management embodies the optimal utilization of time as well as other available resources in the way that leads to the achievement of objectives. This cannot be done except through commitment, analysis, planning and follow-up in order that time can be better utilized in the future.

Thus, the concept of time management is an integrated one, inclusive of all times, places and people. Its application is not limited to certain administrators, places or times. However, the concept of time has been widely associated with administrative work, for it involves a continuous process of planning, analysis and evaluation of all the administrator’s activities within his daily working hours so as to achieve great effectiveness in investing available time for the sake of reaching the desired goals.

*     2.2 Time in Administration Theories

The study of time began to gain significance in management theories early in the twentieth century. It goes back to the works of Frederic Taylor, the ‘father of scientific management’ and founder of the classical theory. He was concerned with increasing factory production by means of division of labour, and time and motion study in order to identify the best way to perform of tasks. “There is no motion that is not performed except within scheduled time, for management involves motion and time, or work and time.”[12]  

Time and motion study involves the division of labour into simple tasks. The basic motions of those tasks from one place to another and the time it takes are defined, so that parts can be assembled in the fastest and best possible way, taking the least possible time.

Taylor made great contributions to increasing the effectiveness of performing production activities by means of re-locating work components, eliminating or reducing wasted time, or re-designing the work place to ensure the easy flow of work without obstacles.

Henry Gant [13] worked on “defining daily wages in such a way that if a worker took less time to finish the work assigned to him, he deserved further wages for the time he saved.”[14]

Frank and Lillian Gilberth [15] studied motion and time in more detail. They were able to establish a state of work performance in the best way within a short period of time. Striving to establish ‘the best way’, through which they introduced the art of specialization and improved performance, they deliberately laid work rules. They divided work into several divisions, and each division into steps. They allocated each step a portion of the time of the whole division. For that purpose maps were prepared to facilitate the study of any operation in detail. They were called ‘flow-maps’ [16]

H. Emerson [17] introduces several concepts, some of which are:

-Ideals or objectives: An organization has to have certain objectives to achieve as soon as it can.

-Awareness: An organization should not be growing haphazardly, but should be evaluating the latest equipment and its human resource growth.

-Transformation: An organization ought to reform and maintain itself according to specific time schedules.

-Typification: Each managerial task should have a typical model. [18]

Henry Fayol focused on raising the organization’s level of performance in general. In this regard, he laid the administrative rules and regulations that are consistent with the organization’s objectives, and with high efficiency production at the lowest cost and within the shortest time possible. All of this requires surveying and recording all available resources and putting them in the proper place under competent management, thus increasing the speed of performance, reducing time and achieving objectives in a highly efficient way. [19]

Evidently, the views of Taylor and his followers did not reflect the concept of time management. They focused on a main aim concerned with the increase of productivity as well as profit by means of concentration on the effectiveness of executive management, particularly in the areas of production. Thus, their aim of time management, according to the concept of scientific management, was to increase the organization’s executive and follow-up abilities. This targeted increase ensures that no time is wasted on haphazard activities, which are not related to standardized motions, each of which has a definite time.

“The scientific management movement of the classical theory was followed by the human relation’s theory. The human relations theory focused on the organization’s social and human dimensions, such as his relationships among individuals, and their relationship with their bosses and others inside or outside the organization.  It has given priority to non-formal work groups, and has encouraged their emergence. It maintains that satisfaction of the needs of non-formal organizations naturally leads to the achievement of formal organizations’ goals. It greatly emphasizes the concept of the ‘social man’, not the classical theory’s ‘economic man’. In brief, the human relations theory emphasizes social motivations.”[20]

The human theory’s concern with time started with calling for giving the worker time for rest from work, which is believed to have a positive effect on his morale, and subsequently on productivity. According to the pioneers of this theory, man is viewed not as a machine that is ready to work twenty-four hours a day. He needs intervals for rest from work, after which he can return to work rested and revived. This results in efficient performance of required tasks. In his experiments (The Hawthorne Studies) conducted at the US Western Electric Factory, E. Mayo, [21] the pioneer of the human school, emphasized the importance of the human factor and rest intervals. Rest inevitably contributes to increased productivity due to its revitalizing effect on workers when they resume work. Rest intervals must not be long or at inappropriate times, otherwise they will have a reverse effect on productivity. [22]

After the human relation’s theory, came the modern organization theory.

It drew on earlier management theories, but made new additions and developed new concepts. In it, time occupied a prominent place. In fact, it incorporated a number of theories: the behaviourist theory, the decision-making theory, the mathematical theory and the biological theory. 

Those theories have been discussed by several management specialists, such as Bernard[23], Argyris[24], R. Likert[25] and Hebert Simon[26] [27]. The decision-making theory, for instance, emphasizes the time factor in dealing with problems of planning and production. It relies entirely on the time factor, as it draws on past events to have insight into the future. It takes time and timing into account at all phases of decision-making with regard to planning or production, by means of defining the right time for taking decisions suitable for the problematic situation in hand.

Based on the time factor, the biological theory views the organization “as a living being, in the sense that it is born, it grows, then deteriorates and dies”. [28] In brief, it is an economic and social entity linked to time, in so far as it is affected by technological developments and modern management concepts, which depend on the time factor in plan execution, and prioritization in practical applications. 

Thus, such theories are evidently concerned with time at all phases of application. Being involved with the achievement of an aim, management requires time for planning, organizing, directing, control and decision-making. In other words, time is a crucial element in the management process, for it is organically linked to all functions. As the working hours are limited, the manager has to invest the available time efficiently and effectively.

*     2.3 Time Management Within the Administrative Process

As previously stated, management processes are geared towards the achievement of the organization’s goals. This needs time, which is organically inseparable from the management functions. Being such a valuable resource, available time has to be properly invested. However, “since it is impossible to invest all the (available) time…, at least, the greatest amount of it can be invested. For a sound and effective start, the basic elements of the management process have to be investigated.”[29] In this respect, a distinction must be drawn between the elements at the national level and those at the business project level. If the investigation is concerned with the elements of the management process in public administration, it is said to be at the government, or national level. If it is concerned with business administration, it is said to be at the level of industrial, commercial and service organizations. The focus of this study is on the latter level, which is concerned with business project management.

3.1 Planning & Time

This is the starting point of the effective application of time management. “Time and planning go hand in hand in all processes, and they are organically linked. Planning links together the parts of the management process, and it also links the consecutive processes of management activities.”[30]

When preparing a management plan, the planner should take into account the time order of phases. Time is to be proportionately allocated to the defined phases. Each phase should have its suitable share of time. The planner has to be aware of the importance of the objective in terms of the time allocated to it. [31]

“One of the requirements of a successful plan is that it has to have a definite period of time, long, medium or short. Specific aims have to be set. The aims should be clearly defined in terms of quantity and time. They should not be inconsistent or conflicting. They should be so flexible that various environmental changes can be taken into account, and so can the priorities of the organization in the light of available resources, towards highly efficient and effective realization of objectives.”[32]

In spite of taking a long time initially, planning makes up for it, by means of producing better results, and saving time during the actual performance of activities. To plan well and to identify priorities, the manager has to define objectives well and put them in the order of their importance, so that the ways of achieving them become clear.”[33] In fact, the effective application of time management begins with “drawing a consistent integrated plan which has well defined objectives. This helps the manager be well aware of the direction or the path he is taking, and of the objective he seeks to achieve sooner or later.”[34]

Objectives are usually defined in a pyramid form (Chart 1). At the very base lie the daily objectives, followed by the weekly ones, the monthly, then the yearly, ending with the strategic objectives at the summit. From the strategic objectives are derived all other objectives. Similarly, every level in that pyramid is a source of objectives for the level below it.

Making a timetable for objectives is of great value when measuring efficiency and effectiveness of their achievement within the defined period. Activities within that period are to be arranged in accordance with priority of objectives or details so that objectives can be reached as scheduled.

3.2 Organizing & Time

Organizing is strongly connected with competent management of time. “Studies and experiments conducted by a number of management scholars have shown that good organizing reduces the time taken by production. Effectiveness of good organizing is reflected on a group of traits that indicate the significance of time for organizing. Examples of those traits are: tendency towards cooperation, loyalty to the group, and coordination of work among the members of the individual group. Within this context, the individual has thorough knowledge of his tasks in harmony with the objectives of the work group as well as the organization’s goals.”[35]

Time is related to the organizing function in a variety of ways, as in: defining the tasks and duties of workers; division of labour objectively and justly among workers; renewing and simplifying existing work procedures by eliminating the unnecessary ones as revealed by relevant systematic studies. In fact, lengthy and complicated procedures as well as long working hours can create revolt among workers or beneficiaries. “Therefore, in order to manage time effectively, it is recommended that existing work procedures be renewed and simplified. This can be done by means of conducting necessary systematic studies to eliminate unnecessary steps, or by introducing modern systems and equipment to accomplish tasks faster. Also, the models prepared in advance by the organization save a great amount of time, which would be otherwise wasted through lengthy explanations and dualism of written information.”[36]

In addition to what has already been mentioned, “The relationship between time management and the organizing function has a variety of aspects, some of which are: the existence of the organization’s material and social environment…; the application of the principle of management by exception; the tendency towards delegation of authority; this strengthens the concept of specialization and division of labour. It also facilitates the execution of duties at all management levels. As a result, the time assigned to each managerial level becomes proportionate with the importance of the activities performed at each level.”[37] With respect to the duties of management levels, the top level is concerned with the major responsibilities embodied in the strategic activities regarding the future and continuity/ survival of their organization. The middle management level carries out the tasks assigned by the top level, which is, thus, given time to concentrate on major crucial activities. The immediate management level implements the tasks defined by the top and middle levels, and it reports to them on implementation matters.

2.3 Directing & Time

Generally, the directing function occupies a large part of the manager’s time. He has to be well aware of when to direct, workers’ personalities and the organization’s conditions, otherwise, it would be out of the right place and time. It involves guiding workers to how to perform and implement assigned tasks, in addition to various forms of communication, oral, written and technical. Before starting any communication or guidance, the supervisor must prepare the necessary information and be aware of the underlying objective. Besides, he must define the period required for communication, particularly if the recipient is far from the management quarters; in such a case, more time and effort are needed. [38]

“Prolonging the directing time creates such a sense of boredom among workers that the desired benefit and the expected outcome are not realized. Therefore, brief directing over short periods is much more fruitful.”[39] In order to maximize the benefit of the directing time, there should be well-established rules for the organization’s material and social environment. The success of the communication process basically upon: a human relations milieu supportive of work; effective incentive policies; a clear understanding of work group dynamics in relation to performance; good social relations, cooperation and mutual trust among workers; psychological atmosphere conducive to effective and efficient performance. Such work conditions provide for better understanding and greater trust among workers and for enhanced performance and increased productivity. [40]

“The manager can rely heavily on oral communication as much as possible. This can reduce the time spent on writing, printing and signing letters and that spent on in-coming and out-going information at the manager’s office.  Also, before starting any communication, the manager, for instance, should prepare for meetings with personnel beforehand, should organize his thoughts, and should have a definite objective, even for phone calls so that it can take as short a time as possible.

What has been mentioned so far increases the effectiveness of communication and the directing function and maximizes the manager’s utilization of the time allocated to that function.

2.4 Control &Time

Control is inseparable from and depends on the planning function. The controller has to have good knowledge of administrative planning so that he can perform his control duties according to the set plans. He has also to be aware of the extent to which he can ignore the set criteria and when he can do that.

“The importance of time for the control function is manifested in the prompt identification as well as prevention of errors. Evidently, control takes longer in the case of strict procedures being carried out under threats, but takes a short time if procedures are self-imposed and based on trust and commitment to reaching objectives.”[41]

2.5 Decision-Making & Time

Decision-making requires a defined period of time. The diversity of problems and conditions, as well as the varied nature of decisions at management levels, affect the time allocated for decision-making, and so does the organization’s type of leadership. [42]

“Modern management has adopted the scientific method of decision-making, as embodied in problem identification and analysis, suggestion and evaluation of solutions, selection and implementation of a potential solution and follow-up of results. This has arisen out of the need for increasing the effectiveness of decision-making and for quality decisions within the specified period of time. It has led to less dependence on traditional methods, except in limited instances of daily routine or familiar decisions, which do not require serious effort or creativity.”[43]

The manager’s concern with all available methods and means of decision-making greatly increases his effectiveness, raises the quality of decisions and saves time, effort and costs.


[1] Malaekah, A.  Mohamed:   Time Management in Businesses in Saudi Arabia, in Arabic, Series of Publications by the Administration of Economic Research and Information, The Saudi Cairo Bank, Jeddah, 1991, p.  5. 

ملائكة، عبد العزيز محمد، إدارة الوقت في الأعمال بالمملكة العربية السعودية، بنك القاهرة السعودي، سلسلة إصدارات إدارة الأبحاث الاقتصادية والمعلومات، جدة، 1412هـ-1991م، ص 5. 

[2] Taylor, F., Shop Management, Harper and Brothers.  N.  Y., 1903, P.  21

[3] Fayol, H., General And Industrial Management, N.  Y:   Pitman Pub.  Co., Marshal, 1949.  p. 6

[4] Koontz and O’Donnell are two Americans, who maintain, in their book System Analysis of Management Functions, that the manager’s major function is to create the climate in which individuals can work as a team towards the achievement of management objectives Askar, Sameer Ahmad:   Fundamentals of Management, in Arabic, Dar Al-Qalam, Dubai, 1987, p. 23. 

[5] Askar, Sameer Ahmad:   Fundamentals of Management, in Arabic, Dar Al-Qalam, Dubai, 1987, p. 23. 

عسكر، سمير أحمد، أصول الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 23. 

[6] Abdulwahab, Ali:   Introduction to Management, Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh, 1982, p. 13. 

عبد الوهاب، علي، مقدمة في الإدارة، معهد الإدارة العامة، الرياض، 1982م، ص 13. 

[7] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, in Arabic, Al-Matba’ah Al-Ilmiyyah, Damascus, p. 19. 

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، المطبعة العلمية، دمشق، دت، ص 19 بتصرّف. 

[8] Temp, Dale:   Time Management (Arabic translation by Waleed Hawanah), Institute of Public Administration, Riyadh, 1991, p.  32. 

تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 32. 

[9] Helmer, P. , E. , Time Management For Engineers And Constructors, op.  cit., p.  2

[10] Salama, Suhail Fahd:   Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, in Arabic, Arab Organization for Administrative Sciences, Amman, 1988, p.  17. 

سلامة، سهيل فهد، إدارة الوقت:  منهج متطور للنجاح، المنظمة العربية للعلوم الإدارية، إدارة البحوث والدراسات ، عمان، 1988م، ص 17. 

[11] Malaekah, A.  Mohamed:   Time Management in Businesses in Saudi Arabia, op.  cit. , 1991, p.  7. 

ملائكة، عبد العزيز محمد، إدارة الوقت في الأعمال بالمملكة العربية السعودية، مرجع سابق، ص 7. 

[12] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  20. 

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 20 بتصرّف. 

[13] Ibid, p. 17. 

Henry Gant is a management scholar.  He belongs to the school of scientific management.  He added to Taylor’s works a particular format for enhancing work performance and continuity.  He invented for that purpose the ‘Gant maps’. 

[14] Ibid, p.  17                                   المرجع نفسه، ص 17

[15] Askar, Sameer Ahmad:   Fundamentals of Management, op.  cit. , p.  38. & Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  17. 

انظر:   عسكر، سمير أحمد، أصول الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 38& وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص17. 

[16] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  17. 

انظر:   وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 17. 

[17] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  17. 

انظر:   وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص17. 

[18] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  17. 

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص17. 

[19] Al-Hawwari, Sayyid Mahmoud, Principles of Management, in Arabic, Cairo, Maktabat Ain Shams, 1977, pp.  296-300. 

انظر، الهواري، سيد محمود، مبادئ الإدارة، مكتبة عين شمس، القاهرة، 1977م، ص 296-300. 

[20] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , pp.  21-22. 

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 21 – 22 بتصرّف. 

[21] Askar, Sameer Ahmad:   Fundamentals of Management, op.  cit. , pp.  40-41. 

عسكر، سمير أحمد، أصول الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص40 – 41. 

[22] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , pp.  21-22.  & Hashim, Hitham:   Principles of Management, Khalid Ibn Al-Waleed Press, Damascus University, Damascus, pp.  126-128. 

انظر:   وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 21-22.  و هاشم، هيثم، مبادئ الإدارة، مطبعة خالد بن الوليد، جامعة دمشق، دمشق، 1975م، ص 126-128. 

[23] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  23.  & Aqeeli, Omar Wasfi:   Management:   Foundations, Principles and Concepts, in Arabic, Dar Zahran, Amman, 1997, p.  131. 

شستر برنارد:   مؤسس مدرسة النظام الاجتماعي، ناقش الجانب السلوكي في النظرية الحديثة، وعدّ المنظمة نظاماً تعاونياً وأن وظيفة المدير الرئيسة هي إيجاد جو التعاون الجماعي في سبيل تحقيق هدف معين.  وكذلك أعطى أهمية كبيرة لتدريب القادة وإعدادهم إعداداً يرفع من مستواهم القيادي وذلك في كتابه التنظيم والإدارة الذي نشره عام 1948م.  انظر:   (وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 23، وعقيلي، عمر وصفي، الإدارة أصول وأسس ومفاهيم، دار زهران، عمّان، 1997م ، ص 131). .  

[24] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  24. 

كريس آرجيريس:   انتقد في كتاباته النظرية الكلاسيكية وقال:    ثمّة تناقض أساسي بين مقومات الشخصية الناضجة وبين متطلبات ومبادئ التنظيم الكلاسيكية.  انظر:  (وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص24). 

[25] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  24.  & Askar, Sameer Ahmad:   Fundamentals of Management, op.  cit. , p.  345. 

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص24.  وعسكر، سمير أحمد، أصول الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 345. 

[26] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , pp.  23-24. 

انظر:   وتر،محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 23-24. 

[27] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , pp.  23-24. 

انظر:   وتر،محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 23-24. 

[28] Sulaiman, Hanafi Mahmoud:   Management:   A Comprehensive Approach, Dar Al-Jami’ah AL-Misriyyah, Alexandria, 1978, p. 161. 

سليمان، حنفي محمود، الإدارة:   منهج شامل، دار الجامعة المصرية، الاسكندرية، 1978م، ص161. 

[29] Salama, Suhail Fahd:   Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op.  cit. , p.  79. 

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص79. 

[30] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  37. 

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 37 بتصرّف. 

[31] Ibid. , p.  37                           وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 37 بتصرّف

[32] Salama, Suhail Fahd:   Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op.  cit. , p.  79. 

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطوّر للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص 79. 

[33] Temp, Dale:   Time Management, op.  cit. , p.  500.                   تيمب، دايل، إدارة الوقت، مرجع سابق، ص 500

[34] Salama, Suhail Fahd:   Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op.  cit. , p.  79. 

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص 79. 

[35] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , pp.  117-120. 

انظر:   وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص117-120. 

[36] Salama, Suhail Fahd:   Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op.  cit. , p.  83. 

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص 83. 

[37] Abu-Sheikha, N. Ahmad:   Time Management, in Arabic, Amman, Dar Majdalaawi, 1991, pp. 36-37. 

أبو شيخة، نادر أحمد، إدارة الوقت، دار مجدلاوي، عمان، 1991م، ص 36-37. 

[38] Salama, Suhail Fahd:   Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op.  cit. , pp.  88-89. 

انظر:    سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص 88-89. 

[39] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  202. 

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 202. 

[40] Davies, Keith:   Human Behaviour at Work, Arabic translation by Sayyid Abdurrahman Mursi and Mohamed Ismaeel Yusuf, Cairo, Dar Nahdhat Misr, 1974, pp.  512-516. 

انظر: ديفز، كيث، السلوك الإنساني في العمل، ترجمة سيد عبد الرحمن مرسي ومحمد إسماعيل يوسف، دار نهضة مصر، القاهرة، 1974م، ص 512-516. 

[41] Salama, Suhail Fahd:   Time Management, A Developing Approach to Success, op. cit. , p.  89-90. 

سلامة، سهيل بن فهد، إدارة الوقت منهج متطور للنجاح، مرجع سابق، ص 89-90 بتصرّف. 

[42] Watar, M.  Dhahir:   The Role of Time in Management, op.  cit. , p.  230. 

وتر، محمد ضاهر، دور الزمن في الإدارة، مرجع سابق، ص 230 بتصرّف. 

[43] Al-Khuli, Sayyid Mahmoud:   Effectiveness of Time Management and Management Decision-Making, in Arabic, Cairo, Maktabat Ain Shams, 1994. 

انظر: الخولي، سيد محمود، فاعلية إدارة الوقت واتخاذ القرارات الإدارية، مكتبة عين شمس، القاهرة، 1994م.             

       

 


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