Salah and its significance in Islam

Salah and its importance in Islam

Importance of Salah in the life of the Muslim’s individual:

1. Salah is an act of worship: It is not a custom. It is not a ritual. It is very special. It has no equal. It has no alternative. There are no excuses, even when you are ill, on a journey or even in a war.

2. Salah is the second and most important pillar of Islam.

3. Salah is a practical sign of obedience to the commands of Allah. It is the practical proof of our faith in Allah and Islam.

4. Salah is the only distinction between a Mo’min and a non-Mo’min.

5. Salah reminds you of Allah (SWT), when you get up in the morning, it reminds you three more times when you are busy during the day, and once again before you go to bed.

6. Salah is a direct contact or link between the worshipper and Allah with no earthly intermediaries. It is the Me’raaj of a Mo’min.

7. Salah builds a strong defense against evils which exist around us. It is said in the Holy Qur’an that, surely, Salah keeps you away from indecency and evil. This is why the prayer is described as “remembrance” to Allah (SWT).

8. Salah wipes out our sins: Prophet Muhammad (SAAWS) once asked his companions “Tell me if there was a river at the door step of one of you in which you washed 5 times a day would any of your dirt remain?” When he received the reply that none of it would remain he then said “That is like the 5 times Salah, with which Allah (SWT) wipes out sin.

10. Salah was the last will of the Prophet (SAAWS). As his soul departed he said with his last breaths: As-Salah, As-Salah.

11. Salah is the first thing that a person is judged by on the Day of Judgement. If it was good, the rest of all his deeds will be good. But if it was poor, the rest of all his deeds will be poor.

This narration sets a clear declaration as to how we will be judged on the Day of Judgement. We are given a clear message: [get your Salah in good order, and it will take care of the rest… Lose your Salah, and you are in big trouble]; Very simple message, but very powerful, and very direct.

That is how important Salah is. It was the first command in Islam, it was the last will of the Prophet (SAAWS), and it is the first act that we will be judged by on the Day of Judgement. Therefore, we need to know why it is so important, and how can we uplift our prayers and make our Salah in the manner that will give us the reward in this life and in the hereafter.

Importance of Salah in the life of the Muslim’s Ummah:

12. The knots “in the rope of Islam” will be undone one by one. Every time a knot is undone, people will adhere strongly to the next. (By undone, we understand that people no longer act by this aspect of Islam). The first knot to be undone is living by the law of Islam, and the last to be undone is Salah.  What we take from this Hadith, is that when a Muslim community gives up Salah, it will be the last act in giving up their Islam. We have seen this happening across the world and across the generations. This is also why we see that when a Muslim community wants to hold on to Islam, and wants to be recognised as faithful, people make that extra effort to return to Salah.

In this society, we can look at Salah in Islam as our last line of defence. We hold on to it, we preserve ourselves as Muslims, and God willing, we preserve our children and their children and so on, as Muslims. If we lose Salah, God forbid, we lose everything, in this life and in the hereafter. That is truly a disaster.

This is what the Holy Qur’an says about those communities who gave up their Salah: [But after them there followed future generations who lost the Prayers and followed after lusts. Soon, then, will they face destruction] (S19, A59).

The following are just a few more verses from the Holy Qur’an to cast away any further doubts about the rule of establishing Salah in Islam: [And establish regular prayer and give zakah and obey the Messenger, that you may receive mercy] (S24, A56)

[And be steadfast in prayer; give zakah and bow down your heads with those who bow down ‘in worship] (S2, A43)

[They are those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give zakah, enjoin the right and forbid the wrong. With Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs] (S22, A41)

Brothers and sisters, there should be no doubt in our minds and hearts about the need to establish regular prayers. It is vital for our present community, and it is vital for our future generations.

We cannot instil in our children the need to establish regular prayers if we do not act as an example. We cannot understate this point. We have to act as an example to our children. We are asked to encourage our children by age seven, and we are asked to enforce prayers by age ten. There is no doubt as to what the instructions are. We are responsible for our children. We may feel happy that we have been able to establish regular prayers ourselves, and that we have preserved Islam in our community for this generation, but what about the next, and what about the one after. There is no room for leniency here, and we need to be very vigilant. Indeed, there is a Hadith that states that between the person and Kufr (wilfully renouncing Allah) is abandoning Salah on purpose. This was narrated by Muslim and by Ahmad, and it is also agreed by the Sahabah.

15. Importance of Salat al-Jama’ah (Congregational Prayer)

A. What about the role of the mosque and the Jama’ah prayers?

This is an important concept in Islam. Islam encourages the Jama’ah prayers. In an agreed Hadith, the Prophet (SAAWS) states that the Jama’ah prayers is worth 27 times the prayers of a person by himself. There is always more reward when we pray together.

In another hadith, the Prophet (SAAWS) states that the prayer of the man in Jama’ah is worth 25 times his prayers alone. When he performs good Wudu, and leaves his house for the sole purpose of prayers, with every step he takes his status is uplifted, and a sin is forgiven. As he prays, the angels will continue praying for him, saying, God bless him and God forgive him, until he finishes his Salat. This is the reward for establishing Jama’ah prayers.

In another Hadith, the Prophet (SAAWS) mentions that if three Muslims are present in a community, they need to establish Jama’ah prayers, or Satan will get to them, as we are weakened by being separate, and strengthened by the Jama’ah.

In fact, establishing Jama’ah prayers is a definite Sunnah, to the extent that we are informed in another Hadith, that if we leave the Jama’ah prayers, we are actually abandoning an established Sunnah of the Prophet (SAAWS).

14. Other examples of the reward for attending the mosque for Jama’ah prayers are the following Hadith.

The Prophet (SAAWS) said who ever attends the mosque and returns, God prepares for him paradise on every occasion he attends and leaves. The Prophet (SAAWS) also says when you witness a person that regularly attends to the mosque for prayers it is a testimony of his faith.

[The mosques of Allah shall be visited and maintained by those who believe in Allah and the Last day, and establish regular prayer] (S9, A18)

The Prophet (SAAWS) said; Shall I guide you to what wipes away the sins and lifts up your status.

The mosque is the home of every pious person. God will look after this person with mercy and guides him along the straight path to paradise.

Brothers and sisters; We all know that Salah is compulsory, but even with this pillar there are important issues that we need to address.

The most important for us, for the community in anywhere, is that we should encourage ourselves to attend the mosque for Jama’ah prayers more and more. Not just the Juma’ah prayers, but for most Jama’ah prayers if we can.

B. What are the worldly and spiritual benefits of Salat al-Jama’ah?

There is a great reward when Salah is offered in Jama’ah.

Salah gives us both Worldly and Spiritual benefits; these are listed below:

1. ISLAMIC EQUALITY:

In the congregation, rich and poor, high and low, all stand shoulder to shoulder. It is the best scene of mankind’s equality.

2. UNITY:

In this Salah all have one Niyyah, one language and identical actions. All kneel together, all go to Sajdah together.

This teaches us the lesson that we, as Muslims, should be united at all times.

3. LOVE AND CO-OPERATION:

People meet with one another in the Jama’ah Salah. They know the hardships and worries of one another and try to help each other. New things are known there. Mutual love develops. Circle of friendship is widened. We get an opportunity to perfect our life in the light of others experiences.

4. DISCIPLINE:

While offering Salah in Jamat we stand in rows, follow the Imam of Jama’ah and practice obedience to Allah, this forces discipline in us, which is the essential feature of a community’s life.

5. PRESTIGE OF ISLAM:

Our Mosques remain thriving – due to Salah in Jama’ah. It enhances the prestige of Muslims, and the Unity of Muslims affects greatly the enemies.

6. LIMITLESS REWARD:

Allah has put a big reward for Jama’ah Salah. Our Holy Prophet (PBUH) has laid great emphasis on Jama’ah Salah.

Therefore we should offer Jama’ah Salah as often as possible. We should know also know that if there are more than 10 people in Jama’ah, then nobody can estimate its limitless reward except Allah.

My last point is that we must all strive to maintain and protect our mosque, for it is this establishment that will hopefully look after our children and their children. Please invest in this mosque, both financially and with your efforts. This is where our community starts, and this is where we maintain our faith.

 

Advertisements

The Origin of Life – an Islamic Perspective 9

The Origin of Life – an Islamic Perspective

Science must increase our faith. It is wrong for anyone to close their eyes to what is right in front of them.  For a Muslim the evidence of dinosaurs and fossils is not a threat to our beliefs. Rather, it is a confirmation of the power of Allah.

Adapted from the Book: What Islam is All About By Yahiya Emerick

A. Why Does Allah Tell Us About the Creation?

The Holy Qur’an is the book given to us by the Creator of the Universe. Allah, (literally: THE God) which is His personal Name, knows us best and is aware that humans can be very skeptical creatures.

Allah points out, “…if you were to seek a tunnel into the earth or a ladder into the skies and bring them a sign, (they still wouldn’t be convinced.) If it were Allah’s will, He could gather them all into true guidance, so don’t be among those who are influenced by ignorance.” (6:35)

Allah, the Keeper of Wisdom, makes it a point to give as many proofs in the Qur’an about His existence and creative abilities as possible so the maximum number of humans can be guided. We need proof, and Allah gives us that proof. (2:26, 40:57)

Allah, of course, does not need us to follow Him, or believe in Him. As He states, “Allah can do without them and Allah is free of all needs.” (64:6)

He merely wishes that people would choose to believe in Him so He can reward them for their choice. Allah is ready to forgive even those who acted wrongly if they but ask for His forgiveness.

In a Hadith, or saying of the Blessed Prophet Muhammad, we learn, “When Allah decreed the creation (of the universe,) He set down in His book which is with Him, ‘Indeed, My mercy is stronger than My wrath.’” (Bukhari & Muslim. Also see 6:12)

Among the proofs given in the Qur’an for us to learn from is a very detailed explanation of the different features of the universe, how it was made and how the planets and stars were formed. Allah says that, “To Him is due the origin of space and the Earth.” (6:101)

Of course, most people who lived at the Prophet’s time would never have understood what those ayat really meant, but they accepted them anyway and interpreted them as best they could. Sometimes they came up with very interesting explanations.

Allah instructs us to accept everything in the Qur’an, even if we don’t yet know how to understand it. The understanding of the Qur’an grows with each passing generation. As He said, “The intelligent people declare, ‘We believe in the book, the whole of it is from our Lord.” (3:7)

B. Modern Science and Islam.

Modern day scientists have been awe-struck at how complex and intricate the universe is. (67:3-4) The sciences of astronomy, chemistry, astrophysics and molecular biology have pushed the limits of our knowledge ever further.

These new discoveries have assisted greatly in the understanding of what the ayat in the Qur’an mean. For example, there is a section of verses where Allah mentions that during the process of human development, there is a stage where we were an ‘Alaq in the womb. (96:1-5) The word literally means, “a clinging thing.” But no one knew in past centuries how that could be part of the process of growth for a fetus.

So translators, commentators and scholars have tried to explain it as meaning we were clots of blood or other such strange things in the womb. But new discoveries in the last few years have shown that in the early stages of pregnancy, the fertilized egg actually attaches itself to the uterine wall and clings there as it is growing. Thus, modern knowledge unlocks another mystery that previous Muslims could only guess at.

The same thing is true in other areas to quite a startling degree. When we study the ayat of the Qur’an relating to the creation of the universe, we come away astounded, especially since they agree with what we have only discovered in the last ten, twenty and fifty years.

The Qur’an does not give a single, unified essay on how the universe began. Instead, keeping with the Qur’anic method of teaching, different aspects of creation are mentioned in different places in order to give authority to the particular lesson being taught. (See 30:58)

For example, in Surah at Tariq, (86) Allah begins by mentioning the brightest star which appears in the sky at night. Then He describes this star and uses it as a metaphor for how every human has an angel watching over them. Do you see how Allah uses physical aspects of nature to illustrate spiritual principles?

C. The Qur’anic History of Creation.

After we find the references to creation in the Qur’an, then we can piece them together to get a picture of how Allah’s revelation explains the beginning. As Muslims, however, we must not forget to look into the lesson taught in each passage. We must remember what the purpose is for including these signs in the Qur’an so we can be enlightened spiritually as well as mentally.

Allah begins by stating that the universe and planet Earth took six “days” to create. (7:54) Now it must be remembered that in Arabic the word Youm can mean a day as we know it, or it can mean any stage or period of time. As Allah points out, a day to him can be a thousand years, fifty thousand years or more. 1

The creation of planets and the Earth took place in the last two periods of time. As Allah states in the Qur’an, “Declare, ‘Do you disbelieve in the One Who created the Earth in two stages? Do you make others equal to Him? He is the Lord of all the worlds.’” (41:9)

The process of creation can be summarized as follows: All matter in the universe was compacted together in one place. Then Allah gave the command and it blew apart scattering molecules and gases in all directions. (“The Big Bang.”) The force of this initial explosion keeps the universe expanding.

Space was filled with matter, anti-matter and gases which eventually combined into larger particles. These bits of matter eventually grew into asteroids, planets, stars and moons. Each object of inter-stellar space conformed to a set of physical laws which governed the trajectory of their orbits so a regular pattern of rotation could be seen. (21:33, 29:61)

Stars ignited in a fury of radioactive fusion and gave off light and heat which brought warmth to those planets near them. (86:3) Small moons were captured in the orbit of larger planets and came to have a regular orbit around them, often reflecting light from the sun. (54:1-2)

Finally, the planets themselves developed and formed in a variety of ways with fantastic geologic formations and movements both above and below the surface. (27:61)

The planet Earth, in particular, cooled near its outer layers, forming a thin crust made up of plates that moved and grated against each other. (15:19) This allowed the Earth’s surface to constantly erase the damage caused by occasional asteroid impacts. But the colliding of the plates also had the side effect of raising tall mountains and exposing the geologic history of the planet.

Escaping gases from the ground and water, warmed in the sunlight, eventually raised to a high altitude where they formed a protective layer. This Ozone Layer shielded out harmful radiation and ultraviolet rays from the sun.

After a time, life was to appear but that is the subject of the next lesson. For now, it is amazing that this scientific narrative is almost exactly the same as what Allah revealed in the Qur’an. Look at the following illustrations showing what happened, what Allah said about it, and the ayat from which they come.

You will be amazed and can only proclaim your wonder at Allah’s Revelation. Remember, He mentioned these things to teach us to be believers in Him. If He tells us the truth, we would be fools not to believe in Him. Right?

“Don’t they see anything in the functioning of space and the Earth and in all things Allah created?” (7:185)

D. How Can We Know the World Around Us?

As we have learned already, Islamic teachings assume that the Earth and universe are very old. In addition, the Qur’an states clearly that one of the reasons Allah made us intelligent and self-aware, or Sentient, is so that we can discover the wonders of the natural world around us. In short, Allah gave us the mission to investigate what He created.

There is so much we don’t know or understand, even about how our own bodies work. With all these fantastic areas of knowledge to pursue, you would think that everyone would recognize their Lord. But some still choose to keep their eyes shut. As Allah says, “He, (Allah,) created humans from a drop of sperm and then the same humans become clear arguers!” (16:4.)

But thankfully, not everyone closes their understanding and the world has many fine examples of great scientists and researchers who also put their trust in Allah.

In our modern world there are so many discoveries in all fields which are giving us a more complete picture of the history of the universe. At the same time, our knowledge of Earth’s past is expanding and revealing some surprising results.

E. What Do We Know about the Origins of Life?

Today, scientists tell us that life began in the sea when simple molecules bonded together and became self-replicating, or self-producing. These single-celled organisms, quickly took on the characteristics of what we know as algae.

They received their energy from the sun in a process termed Photosynthesis, and as a result of their activity, new gases formed in the air creating a viable environment for more complex forms of life.

As Muslims we can either accept this theory, reject it or modify it according to what we know in Allah’s revelation. As you will remember, we learned that Allah said He created all life from water and raised a protective canopy over the Earth. Allah knows best and all we can do is study, research, test and reflect.

Scientists further tell us that over millions of years, the first organisms blossomed gradually into many different types and shapes, resulting in plant life, plankton, arthropods and simple fishes. Dinosaurs, higher creatures and mammals followed.

F. What is Evolution and Creationism?

These discoveries in themselves are not harmful to a healthy belief in Allah’s creative power to make whatever He wills in whatever way He wishes. But some scientists have tried to say that everything in the universe, even life itself, happened all by chance and accident, without any Divine intervention.

The name of this theory is Evolution and its most famous advocate was a man named Charles Darwin (1809-1882). He was an Englishman who lived during the nineteenth century when Britain ruled most of the world.

He was keenly interested in the origin of life and took a journey around the world to study the plants and animals of Earth. The ship he sailed on was called the HMS Beagle. He spent a particularly long amount of time on the Galapagos Islands, located in the Pacific ocean, examining birds, lizards and giant turtles.

He came to believe that the variety of life in our world was due to what he called “Natural Selection” and “Survival of the Fittest.” He wrote his findings in a book entitled, “On the Origin of Species” which he published in 1859.

The book immediately caused a controversy in the Christian world because Christianity taught that God made life in an instant and that Earth was the center of importance in the universe. Christians also felt threatened by Darwin’s teachings because they knew it meant he was saying everything happened without needing God. To this day, many Christians still oppose and do battle in court over whether or not these theories should be taught in school.

These Christians advance the counter- idea of Creationism, or God making things all at once, while modern scientists still promote Evolution, or things happening by themselves accidentally, gradually and naturally. The two sides are as far apart as ever.

G. What Do Muslims Believe?

Where do Muslims stand? The answer may surprise you for we can agree with aspects of both sides. Islam teaches us that Allah’s creation is vast and beyond our comprehension. We are also taught that the more we explore and learn, the more we will come to believe in Allah. That is the Islamic position.

So we assert without any hesitation that Allah caused the creation of the universe and that He set up the laws for its functioning. As Allah said:

“Behold! In the creation of space and the Earth and in the changing of night into day are indeed signs for people of understanding. Those who remember Allah standing, sitting and lying down, and contemplate the (wonders) of creation in space and the Earth. (They declare,) “Our Lord! You didn’t create all of this for nothing. So save us from the punishment of the fire.” (3:190-191)

Science, then, must increase our faith. It is wrong for anyone to close their eyes to what is right in front of them. For hundreds of years people have been finding fossils, bones and ancient artifacts which point to a hidden past we don’t know much about. Allah even commands us to travel over the Earth and learn from what we see. We humans have now seen much to challenge our understanding!

We know that Earth existed long before the appearance of humans. Allah says, “Wasn’t there a long period of time before humans were even mentioned?” (76:1)

We also know from the geologic timetable that the Earth went through many ages before we came here. And in the ayat that mentions this proof of Allah, we are given a very strong clue about the adaptability of life forms to their environment.

Allah said, “Don’t you see that Allah sends rain from the sky? With it We produce plants of various colors. And in the mountains are colored layers, white and red of various tones and some black in hue. And so too, among humans and crawling creatures and cattle. They are of various colors. Those among Allah’s servants who have knowledge truly fear Him, for Allah is Mighty and Forgiving.” (35:27-28)

So while we agree with the Creationists who say Allah made the universe, we disagree with them on how fast it was constructed and that Earth is the only center of focus for the Creator. Allah declares Himself to be the Lord of All the Worlds: Rabb ul Alameen.

Because we do not reject the evidence presented to us by Paleontologists (fossil hunters) and other scientists, we can accept some of what they say, also, about the origins of life on Earth and the existence of dinosaurs and other creatures in the fossil record. However, we read in Allah’s book that He caused it to happen and that by studying it we increase our faith in Him. Therefore, we disagree with those who say everything happened without Allah, by mere chance only.

“To Allah belongs the control of space and the Earth and Allah has power over all things.” (3:189)

Ours is the middle position even as Allah said we were created to be the middle community: never going to extremes. (2:143) So we don’t accept, based on the evidence, the final positions of both sides. Rather, we accept what appears to be true and reject what appears to be false from each. The Qur’an is our standard, our determiner, and it has never let us down, nor will it ever do so.

For a Muslim, then, the evidence of dinosaurs, trilobites and ancient algae is not a threat to our beliefs. Rather, it is a confirmation of the power of Allah. As Allah said, “He has created horses and mules for you to ride and show; and He has created other (creatures) that you don’t know.” (16:8)

“Allah created every creature from water. Of them are some that creep on their bellies, some that walk on two legs and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills for He has power over all things. We have indeed sent signs that make things clear and Allah guides whom He wills to the straight way.” (24:45-46)

Who else but Allah could have made such a complex and mysterious universe? (16:40) We must have pity on those who reject the proof of Allah’s existence for they will be the losers in the end.

Remember the ayah that was listed before: Allah says, “He, (Allah,) created humans from a drop of sperm and then the same humans become clear arguers!” (16:4.)

Even a miraculous thing such as the fertilization of the egg cannot convince some people to believe in the creative energy of the Creator of the Universe.

Allah asks rhetorically, “Then what message will they believe in after this?” (77:50)

The Rational Proofs for the Existence of Allah 8

The Rational Proofs for the Existence of Allah

Source: http://www.islamtoday.net/

The following are established facts and principles that all rational people agree upon:

  1. The invalidity of determination without a determining factor.
  2. The invalidity of an infinite sequence.
  3. The invalidity of the vicious circle.
  4. The law of causality.

This universe that is in existence must fall under one of three possibilities with respect to the nature of its existence:1. Its existence is necessary.

 

2. Its existence is impossible.

3. Its existence is possible.


The first of these possibilities is false, because that would imply that the universe could never cease to exist. We can witness created things being born and dying, coming into existence and disappearing. Thus, there is no reason why the whole universe cannot perish.


The second possibility is equally false, because we can see for ourselves that the universe exists. Its existence is clearly not impossible.

 

The third possibility is the only one left: that the existence of the universe falls in the realm of possible things. It exists for sure, but it could just as well not have come into existence. The fact that it exists shows that there must be an outside determining factor that brought it into existence.


If someone were to say: “Maybe the universe brought itself into existence”, we would respond that this requires that a determination took place without a determining factor. If it brought itself into existence, then its existence would have to be necessary, but it clearly is not, since its nonexistence is also possible. This requires that some outside force was needed of a nature completely different than that of the universe.


If someone were to say: “Maybe some power other than Allah brought it into existence”, we would respond that the falsehood of this claim should be seen from the remaining proofs.


2. The invalidity of an infinite sequence.


The possibility that the universe was created by another force besides Allah is completely false, because it leads to an infinite sequence of causes stretching into the past. Its conceptualization would be that of an uninterrupted sequence of possibilities stretching into the past without the mind ever arriving at a point where it can settle down and decree that it has reached the beginning.


So, if someone were to say: “It is possible that some other force besides Allah brought the universe into existence.”We would say to him: “Who, then, brought this hypothetical originator into existence?” If he were then to say: “Another originator brought it into existence.”

 


We would say: “This leads to a chain of causation that stretches backwards into infinity, which is false and invalid. Therefore, this sequence of events must terminate at some point with a being whose existence is necessary, existing without needing something else to bring it into existence. This being is the Divine Being.”


3. The invalidity of the vicious circle.


The vicious circle is the idea that the existence of one thing is dependent on another that in turn is ultimately dependent on the first. This is obviously false, invalid, and contrary to reason. An example of this would be to say that the egg depends upon the chicken for its existence, and the chicken in turn depends upon the egg for its existence. If this were the case, then it would be impossible for either the chicken or the egg to come into existence. This is what is meant by the “vicious circle.”


If someone were to say: “The universe has a beginning and has an initial cause, except that this cause that brought it about is no more than the spontaneous, inherent reactions of its primordial particles that continued for millions of years until ultimately resulting in the universe that we have now. In other words, its own nature brought it into existence.”We would respond by saying: “What, then, is the initial cause that brought these interacting, primordial particles into existence in the first place? And what is the cause of these spontaneous reactions?”

 


If he were to say: “The particles themselves are the cause, meaning that they came into being on their own then interacted to produce the universe.”


We would say to him: “This is that very vicious circle that is rationally impossible. You have made something the cause for the existence of something else, and then made that thing in turn the cause for the existence of the first. This is because when it was in the state of absolute nothingness, its existence depended upon it coming out of that nothingness. Then, when it came out of that state it became the cause of its own existence.”


Then we would say to him: “You, yourself, said that the universe has a beginning, that it did not exist eternally in the past, so how can something that has a beginning be the cause of its own existence when it previously did not exist, and when absolute nothingness can never bring anything else into existence. Something cannot at the same time be both the creator and the thing that was created.”


4. The Law of Causality.


The determination of things and the order that exists in the universe both indicate that there was a cause for – and wisdom behind – that determination and order. It is unreasonable to assume that a cause for something or the wisdom behind it could exist without there being an influencing and directing factor for both of them. If we were to say that the Sun came into existence by mere coincidence without there being behind it any wisdom, and that every function that it performs to facilitate the existence of life are the products of pure chance and coincidence, no one would doubt – even in this day and age – that we were afflicted by insanity. Likewise, if we were to say to a specialist in internal medicine that the organs of the human body like the brain, liver, and pancreas, came into existence by mere coincidence and became ready to fulfill their specialized functions by chance, he would not doubt for a moment that we were devoid of our senses.


So, if we would take objection to the idea that these particulars could have come about by coincidence, then how can we possibly believe someone who says that the universe in its entirety came into existence by coincidence, and that the order within it has no reasoning or directing force behind it? And how can we believe someone who says that all the events that occur in the universe that result from specific causes and all the wisdom resulting from what is carried out by the various entities within it came about coincidentally without these results being deliberately intended?Is it reasonable to assume that this universe with its miraculous order, arrangement, and precision came about in vain, and that all this precision and detail is the result of mere coincidence?

 


The one who believes this might as well believe someone who tells him that if we take six monkeys and give each of them a typewriter, then wait a few million years, one of them might produce for us one of Shakespeare’s sonnets. Would anyone in his right mind believe that?

 

Existence of Allah 8

here is a short translated excerpt of Imam al-Ghazali’s own writings about this topic in his famous Ihya’ al-`Ulum al-Din:
First Proof (Existence of Allah):

“It is a natural impulse that the intellect dictates that no thing which has a beginning in time could be free of a preceding external cause to have brought it into existence. And the universe has a beginning
in time and thus must necessarily need an external cause to have brought it into existence.

As for our statement that something which had a start in time must necessarily have a preceding external cause, it is obvious [that it is true]. This is because every thing that starts in time has a specific
time [in which it becomes existent]. And rationally speaking, it is possible for it to have come into existence before the specific time it came into existence or after this specific time. Thus, its occurrence
being singled out for that specific time rather than a time before it or after it necessarily points to Someone that chose [this time of occurrence for it].

As for our statement that the universe had a beginning in time, its proof is that the physical bodies of the universe must either be in motion or stillness. And these two things [i.e. motion and stillness]
are created in time. And that [essence] which cannot be without [attributes] which begin in time must also have a beginning in time. But, in this above proof, we are making three claims:

The first claim is that physical essences must either be in motion or in stillness. And this is known [to humans] by second nature and necessarily. This fact does not require multi-step thinking and
thought. So, whoever can imagine a physical body which is not moving or standing still [at the same time] is riding in ignorance and away from the way of the intellect.

The second claim is that [the attributes of] motion and stillness have  beginnings in time. The proof for this is that one of these attributes follows the other in time – one at a time. And this can be seen in all
physical essences, the ones we can see and the ones we cannot see.

So there is not a physical object in stillness except that the intellect accepts that it can be in motion instead. And there is not a physical  object in motion except that the intellect accepts that it can stand still.
Thus, the attribute that came into existence [replacing the other one] has a beginning in time for the fact that we saw it come  into existence. And the previous replaced attribute has a beginning
in time because its going out of existence has been seen. This is because if the previous attribute never began in time, it could never end in time as we will explain later when giving the proof for the
endlessness of the Creator High and Holy be He.

The third claim is that if an essence is described by attributes that have beginnings in time, that essence must also have a beginning in time. The proof for this is that if this were not true, every  occurrence [of motion or stillness] would have an occurrence before it [which replaced it] without having any first ultimate  primary state. If that were true, than the number of occurrences up to our present time would be infinite… And also the number
of rotations/revolutions that a celestial body has completed [up to our time] has to be either odd or even. This is because, [if  the number of occurrences were infinite], they would be either both odd and even or neither odd nor even; but these are two mutually exclusive concepts [i.e. oddness and evenness] one of  which must [always] be true [for any number]. … And the upshot of this is since the universe is described by attributes
that begin in time, it must also begin in time. Now if we know  that it had a beginning in time, then it is necessarily known that  it must have had a Creator to have brought it into existence.”

Imam al-Ghazali continues:

Second Proof: (Allah’s beginninglessness)

“The second fundamental principle is that Allah Most High never had a beginning in time. He existed in pre-eternity without His existence ever having a start. Rather, He is the first of everything else and before every dead and living being.The proof for this is that if He had a beginning in time, He would also need someone to bring Him into existence. And His creator would also need someone to bring him into existence.

 

And this would lead to an infinite regress. And all infinite regresses never come up with anything. Or if we say that this regress ended  at an ultimate Creator, He then must have been the First One  [we were looking for]. And this First One is Whom we were seeking and we could call Him the Creator of the universe…

References:
[IU: volume 1: page(s) 183-184: line(s) 5-23, 1-10: {ihya’, qawa`id al-`aqa’id, section 3, beginning of
explanation of ten fundamental principles of belief in Allah}]

__________________

Proof of Existence of Allah 7

Proof of Existence of Allah (SWT)  

Shahid Hasan al-Banna


From: Al’Aqaa’id – The Islamic Creed

Rational and logical proofs of the attributes of Allah, exalted be He.

Theologians like to prove the attributes of Allah (SWT), using rational arguments and logical analogies. We see no harm in that approach because the mind is the repository of knowledge, and because sanity is a precondition for responsibility. This approach may help to remove any trace of confusion or falsehood from the mind of those who are confused or misguided. However, the existence of Allah and affirming His attributes of absolute Perfection have become self evident and hardly need any proof or argument. Only someone who is arrogant or with a diseased heart, would demand evidence for those self-evident truths. He may not even be satisfied with rational evidence. In spite of that, I am going to mention some general and specific rational proofs for the sake of completeness relating to what has been mentioned.

First proof

Our universe, which is so vast and intricate, points to the existence of its Creator, His greatness and Perfection.
Second proof

You cannot give what you do not have. If the Creator of this universe were not characterised by Perfection, how then can His creatures have in them the traces of those attributes of perfection.

Third proof

This has to do with the fact that the Creator is One and cannot possibly be more than one. This is because multiplicity of creators would be a cause of discord and chaos and one of them will have to be an overlord to the others since an essential quality of being God is to be majestic and great. Furthermore, if one of the Creators acted on his own, this would cancel out the divine attributes of the others, and if they joined together in action, this would do away with some of the attributes of each of them; and the annulment of the attributes of divinity contravenes its Majesty and Greatness. Thus there has to be One God and no other Lord.

These are examples of logical proofs of the existence of the Creator and His attributes. Whoever wants more proofs can refer to longer works. However, this matter is firmly established in the innate nature (fitra) of pure souls and sound hearts.

‘for any to whom God giveth not light, there is no light!’ (Surat-an-Nur (24), ayah 40)

A question which puzzles many people It was narrated in a Hadeeth by Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Prophet, peace and blessings of Allah be with him, said: ‘Some people will keep asking questions until they ask: ‘Allah created the creation but who created Allah?’ Whoever is asked this question, let him (simply) say ‘I believe in Allah’.’ (Narrated by Muslim)

(Imam Mazrewy commented on this Hadeeth and said that the Prophet, seems to be enjoining Muslims to refrain from trying to respond to such questions about Allah. However, Imam Mazrewy explained, such questions are of two types: those which are not troubling the mind and did not arise because of some misconception. Those can simply be ignored. It seems that the above mentioned Hadeeth is referring to this type of questions which are referred to as waswasah (whisperings of Satan). Since they are not persistently occurring to the mind, they can be set aside without consideration of evidence, because there is no benefit in dwelling on them. As to the persistent questions which arise as a result of some misconception, they can be tackled only with arguments and evidence. Wallahu a’lam (And Allah knows best))

This question is wrong in the first place because we have been commanded by the Prophet, may the peace and blessing of Allah be with Him, not to ponder over the essence of Allah (SWT), because our weak minds are incapable of conceiving the true nature even of themselves. So how can they possibly understand the true nature of Allah (SWT). However, this question comes to the minds of some people and I would like to explain the answer to them through an example which, God willing, will satisfy their questions.

I would say the following:

If you place a book on your desk and then go out of the room and come back a short while later and find that the book which you had left on the desk had been removed and placed in the drawer, you would in this situation, be firmly convinced that someone must have put it in the drawer, this is because you know very well that among the attributes of this book is that it cannot move by itself. Remember this point and let us now move to the next point.

If there is someone sitting on a chair in your office, and you go out and come back and find him sitting on the carpet, for example, you would not ask about the reason for his movement, and you would not believe that someone moved him from his earlier position, because you know that among the attributes of this person is that he can move by himself and that he does not need anyone to move him. Now bear this second point in mind and listen to what I am going to say next.

Human beings came into existence at a certain point in time, and we know that they do not come into existence by themselves, but they must have a Creator. From that we conclude that their Creator is Allah (SWT). Now since perfect divinity presupposes that the deity does not need any other but is necessarily self-sufficient, we conclude that Allah (SWT) exists by Himself and does not need anyone to create Him.

If you place the first two points next to what I have just said, the answer will become clear to you. This is as far as the human mind can go. I ask Allah to protect us from error for He is indeed Kind and Merciful.

Now I would like to quote to you some statements of some European scholars which support the existence of Allah (SWT) and acknowledge His perfect attributes, and Allah alone I trust to help me succeed in my endeavour.

Statements by physicists which support the existence of Allah and acknowledge His attributes:

We have stated earlier that this belief is innate in sound hearts and firmly established in pure minds. It is almost a self-evident fact supported by the outcome of the exercise of the mind, generation after generation. This is why European cosmologists and others have believed in it even though they didn’t learn about it from a religion. I shall move on to quote some of their testimonies, not by way of proving the truth of our faith, but in order to help strengthen it within souls and to silence those who would like to relinquish faith and who are deceiving themselves..

(1) Descartes, the French philosopher, said ‘Even though I feel imperfection in myself, I feel at the same time there must be a Perfect Being and I find myself obliged to believe that this feeling was implanted in me by the Perfect Being which is characterised by all attributes of perfection, which is God.’

In this statement he is acknowledging his weakness and inadequacy and confirming his belief in the existence and perfection of Allah. He is acknowledging that his feelings and sensations are a gift from Allah and are part of the innate nature instilled in him by Allah: ‘the innate nature made by Allah in which He has made men’ (Surat-ar-Rum (30), ayah 30)

(2) Isaac Newton, the well-known English physicist, who discovered the law of gravity said: ‘Don’t doubt the Creator, because it is inconceivable that accidents alone could be the controller of this universe.’

(3) Herschel, the English astronomer, said: ‘The more knowledge we have, the more irrefutable proofs we obtain for the existence of an Eternal Creator with infinite power. Geologists, mathematicians, astronomers and biologists have co-operated in setting up the edifice of science which is the edifice of God’s greatness.’

(4) Lenet was quoted by Camille Flamirion, the Frenchman, in his book titled ‘God in Nature’ as having said: ‘The wonders of God’s creation, the Everlasting, the Eternal, the Omniscient, the Omnipotent, have astounded me: what power, what wisdom, what creativity in His creatures, small or large. The benefits which we get from these creatures testify to the greatness of the Mercy of God who made them subservient to us. Their perfection and harmony points to His vast Wisdom. Their preservation from extinction and their renewal bear witness to His Majesty and Greatness.’

(5) Herbert Spencer, the English philosopher, said in this respect in his Essay on Education: ‘Doubtless, to the superstitions that pass under the name of religion, science is antagonistic; but not to the essential religion which superstitions merely hide. Doubtless, too, in much of the science that is prevalent, there is a pervading spirit of irreligion; but not in that true science which has passed beyond the superficial into the profound.

Devotion to science is a tacit worship – a tacit recognition of worth in the things studied; by implication in their Cause. It is not a mere lip-homage, but a homage expressed in actions – not a mere professed respect, but a respect proved by the sacrifice, thought, and labour.

Not by dogmatic assertion, does it teach the impossibility of comprehending the Ultimate Cause of things; but it leads us clearly to recognise this impossibility by bringing us in every direction to the boundaries we cannot cross. It realises to us in a way which nothing else can, the insignificance of human intelligence in the face of that which transcends human intelligence.’

He then goes on to give examples to explain what he meant: ‘A scientist who sees a drop of water and knows that it is made up of oxygen and hydrogen in certain proportions, in such a way that if these proportions change, we would have something other than water, believes in the Greatness, the Power, the vast Wisdom and Knowledge of the Creator more strongly and firmly than a non-biologist who sees it only as a drop of water. Similarly, a scientist who looks at a hailstone under a microscope and sees the beauty of its design and the magnificence of its composition, no doubt feels the Beauty of the Creator and the His vast Wisdom more strongly than does someone who knows nothing about it more than that it is frozen rain.’

The statements of cosmologists in this regard are innumerable ,and what we have mentioned should suffice. We have cited those statements so that our young people realise that their religion is from Allah (SWT) and that science can only strengthen and support their faith.

Allah, the Exalted, says in the Holy Qur’an: ‘Soon will We show them our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things?’ (Surat-Fussilat (41), ayah 53)

__________________

The Existence of Allah 7

The Existence of Allah

Abdul Wahid Hamid

Islam the Natural Way

Published in 1989 by MELS, © Abdul Wahid Hamid 1989                  

 

 

Once, a Bedouin was asked what made an unsophisticated man like him believe in Allah.
Bedouin: “Do you see these marks in the sand?”
Man: “Yes.”
Bedouin: “What do they tell you?”
Man: “A camel went by.”
Bedouin: “Did you see the camel?”
Man: “No, but these footprints in the sand suggest that a camel made them.”
Bedouin: “Do you see these mountains?”
Man: “Yes.”
Bedouin: “They are indicative to me that Allah made them.”


Once Khalifa Haroon Rasheed asked Imam Malik: “What is the evidence (daleel) pointing to the existence of Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala)?” Imam Malik replied: “Difference in languages, difference in pitches of voice, difference in singing are proof that Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala) exists!”


The same question was asked, by an atheist, of Imam Abu Hanifa and he replied, “Forget it! At the moment, I am busy thinking about this ship. People tell me there is a big ship, it contains different goods on board. There is no one to steer it, no one maintaining it. Yet, this ship keeps going back and forth; it even traverses big waves on the oceans; it stops at the locations that it is supposed to stop at; it continues in the direction that it is supposed to head. This ship has no captain and no one planning its trips.”

The atheist who posed the question interrupted and exclaimed, “What kind of strange and silly thought is this? How can any intelligent person think that some thing like this can occur?”

Imam Abu Hanifa said, “I feel sorry about your state! You cannot imagine one ship running without some one looking after its affairs. Yet you think that for this whole world, which runs exactly and precisely, there is no one who looks after it, and no one owns it.”

Hearing the reply, the atheist was left speechless but he found out more about Haqq (The Truth) and proclaimed Islam.


Imam Shafi`i replied to the question in the following way, “The leaves of Toot (berries) are all but one. Each leaf tastes exactly the same.  Insects, honey bees, cows, goats, and deer live off of it. After eating these the insects produce silk; bees produce honey; deer give musk (a special kind of scent), cows and goats deliver off-springs. Is this not clear evidence that one kind of leaf has so many qualities, and who created these qualities? It is the Khaliq (Creator) who we call Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala) Who is the Inventor and the Creator.”


Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal reflected on the question in the following way. He said, “There is an incredibly strong fort, it has no doors, there is no way to get in. In fact, there is not even a hole in it. From outside it glows like the moon and from inside it shimmers like gold. It is sealed from all sides, matter of fact it is air tight.  Suddenly one of its doors breaks down, a living thing with eyes and ears, a beautiful looking animal appears yelling and wandering all over.  So is not there a creator who made it possible for life to take place in this secured and closed fort? And is not this Creator better than humans? This Creator has no limit.”  Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal was referring to an egg which is closed from all sides but Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala) The Khaliq (Creator) puts life in it and a chick pops out.

The Existence of Allah 6

The Existence of Allah [1]

In the name of Allah, Most gracious, Most Merciful

Mankind in general has maintained a belief in the existence of the Creator of the Universe since time immemorial. The duty of the prophets of Allah was not so much to inform their people of Allah’s existence as to warn them against associating others with Him, and to teach them how to serve Him. “Their messengers said, ‘Is there any doubt concerning Allah, the originator of the Heavens and the Earth?'”[2]  The early Muslim scholars did not even have to address the issue of the Existence of God, for it was a blatantly obvious fact which nobody questioned. It was only around the fourth century after hijrah, when people’s doctrine started being infiltrated with atheism and permeated by unbelief that the scholars had to address the issue.

The existence of Allah is established by various categories of proofs, which may be conveniently classified under four categories.

1. Scriptural evidence

The major religions of the world have scriptures which teach of the existence of the Creator. In particular, the Qur’an, the only revealed book which has remained totally intact and preserved, establishes the existence of Allah by compelling rational arguments, while at the same time serving as an enduring miracle testifying to His reality. It decisively establishes His uniqueness and non-resemblance to creation, and emphasizes that worship is only for Him.

2. The proof of fitrah

As already mentioned, the human being has an inherent and inborn recognition of his Creator. This is a consequence of a pledge which Allah took from the soul of every one of us before we came into this world: “And [remember], when your Lord took from the children of Adam, their children behind them, and made them testify over their own selves, [saying to them], ‘Am I not your Lord?’ They said, ‘Yea.'”[3]  Every human being is born with this natural disposition, which is called fitrah. Abu Hurayrah has reported that the Messenger of Allah (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) said, “Every child is born upon fitrah, then it is his parents who make him Jewish, or Christian, or Magian (Zoroastrian), just as an animal delivers a perfect baby animal; do you find it mutilated?”[4]

But, this fitrah sometimes becomes latent, especially when the human being is in a corrupt and spiritually degenerate environment which is devoid of reminder and exhortation towards the Lord. The fitrah surfaces, however, in times of calamity and distress. How many avowed atheists find themselves raising their hands to the skies in supplication when in affliction! And how do the staunch unbelievers cry out for deliverance when they are faced with death! “[Allah] it is who causes you to travel over land and sea; until, when you are in the ships, and they sail with [their passengers] with a fair breeze, and they are glad therein, a tempestuous wind reaches them, waves are coming at them from everywhere, and they think that they are overwhelmed therein; [then] they call to Allah, making their faith pure for Him [alone], ‘If You save us from this, we will surely be among the thankful!'”[5]  Yet, this sincerity is often short-lived. “Then, when he saves them, behold! They rebel upon the earth wrongfully.”[6] Mankind is all too apt, during the course of his daily life of comfort and enjoyment, to forget his Lord. “And when some trauma touches man, he calls to his Lord, turning repentant to Him. Then, when He grants him a favor from Himself, he forgets that for which he called to Him before, and sets up partners to Allah.”[7]

It is to awaken and alert this fitrah that Allah, in His mercy and wisdom, sent Messengers to remind people of their true religion, and to direct them towards fulfilling their commissionof serving their Lord. Allah has ordered His prophet to proclaim, “O mankind! If you are in [any] doubt regarding my religion, then [know that] I do not worship those whom you worship besides Allah, but I worship Allah Who will take your souls.”[8] The specific mention of death here drives home the stark reality, which even the pagans must concede to when faced with the glaring, intuitive evidence, that Allah alone causes death. The rational individual, then, should prepare for this inevitability by responding to his Lord. Islam is merely a hearkening by man to his nature, an acceptance of that which is naturally good and intuitively right. “So, set your face toward the religion in uprightness. That is the fitrah of Allah, upon which He has created mankind. [Let there be no changing of Allah’s creation.”[9]

There are others who stubbornly resist this truth and reject Allah’s message when it is presented before them, although they are well aware of its veracity. This was the attitude of Pharaoh and his supporters, and its consequences are severe, in this world and the Hereafter: “They rejected [Our signs], although their own souls were convinced of their truth [and this they did] out of iniquity and arrogance. See, then, what was the sequel for those who cause corruption!”[10]

Yet, even hardened deniers who stand in the way of truth and resist it may grab hold of it at the last moment, before it is too late, for on account of the surfacing of the fitrah, a disbeliever who is faced with death on the battlefield may suddenly embrace Islam. The Muslim who fights in jihad will similarly be exposed to death frequently, thus enhancing and sharpening his awareness of Allah.

3. Rational proof

It is intuitively obvious, and confirmed by science, that the universe had a beginning. Every action requires a doer, and thus the existence of creation necessarily indicates the existence of the Creator. Allah appeals to the human mind and rationality in the Qur’an, saying, (translated), “Were they created from nothing, or are they [themselves] the creators?”[11] Quite obviously, we have been created, and brought into existence after being non-existent, and it is also plain that we do not create ourselves. The verse subtly points to the truth by mentioning only these two potentialities, and the logical mind automatically reaches the correct conclusion, which is implied but not explicitly stated : namely, that there must be a Creator. Then, in case an obstinate individual chooses still to argue, claiming that life arose through evolution, the next verse forms a decisive case, silencing any opposition. “Or, did they create the heavens and the earth?! Nay, they are not sure.” So, the wretched individual who opts for barren disputation is challenged, as if to say to him : If you think that life indeed arose through evolution, you still cannot escape, for in that case, who created the heavens and the earth, and made conditions favorable for life therein?

Having recognized the necessity of existence of a Creator, one then realizes that there can only be one Creator. “If there were in [the heavens and the earth] gods other than Allah, [the heavens and earth] would surely have been disordered.”[12] “Allah has not taken a son, nor is there any god with Him, for in that case, each god would assuredly have championed that which he created, and some of them would surely have overcome others. Glorified be Allah above that which they allege!”[13] Further, this one and only Creator cannot possibly resemble creation. “Is, then, He Who creates, like he who does not create? Do you not reflect?”[14]

Above and beyond all of these piercingly distinct evidences, the balance and interaction of the universe and its various systems itself testifies to the existence of a powerful, wise creator. In fact, every part of creation, from the smallest atom to the massive galaxies, are signs of the existence of Allah. Human reason refuses to accept that such a complex system as the universe can come into existence and run on its own. “Indeed, in the heavens and the earth are signs for the believers.”[15]

4. Perceptual experience

We witness and experience the answering of prayers, and this in itself indicates the existence of Allah. Allah says, “When you sought help of your Lord, and he answered you.”[16] Bukhari and Muslim have both narrated the hadeeth in which a bedouin asked the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) to pray for rain, since crops were perishing and people were starving. The prophet prayed to Allah for rain, and almost immediately clouds began to gather and it began raining heavily. Also in this category of evidence are the miracles which people witness at the hands of their prophets, including the splitting of the moon by Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), and the enduring miracle of the Qur’an.

Who is accountable?

Every human being or jinn who is adult, sane and in receipt of the message of Islam is accountable before Allah for his/her beliefs, words and deeds, and is termed a mukallaf. Adulthood is defined in this context as reaching physical maturity or the age of fifteen lunar years, whichever comes first. The evidence for the first two conditions is the hadeeth, “The [recording] pen is lifted off from three [categories of people]: the child until he reaches maturity, the sleeping one until he awakens, and the insane one until he regains sanity.” As for the third condition, receipt of the message, the fitrah is a compelling proof, and a person is left with no excuse before Allah once he has been reminded through the message of a Prophet. “Messengers, harbingers of glad tidings and warners, in order that mankind may have no argument before Allah after the Messengers. And Allah is Mighty, Wise.”[17] Some may venture to say, based on the following verse, that a person is accountable even before he has received the message, by sole virtue of possessing the fitrah. “How many a sign is there in the heavens and the earth, which they pass by with their faces turned away!”[18] However, the stronger position (although Allah knows best) is that one does not become accountable until one has received the message. Allah says, (translated), “And We never punish until We have sent a messenger.”[19]

Finally, we should bear in mind that abundant though the proofs may be, they are only of avail to those who honestly and sincerely search for the truth. As for those obdurate ones who simply refuse to believe, they will not cease their idle disputation. “And they say, ‘Our hearts are in a covering from that to which you call us, and in our ears is a deafness, and between us and you is a veil, so act, we [also] are acting.”[20] “Those against whom the decree of your Lord has been verified, will not believe, although every sign should come to them, until they see the painful punishment.”[21]

We ask Allah to keep us firm in faith and to bring us our end in it.

 

 

 

 


[1] Al-Jumu`ah” magazine, by Abu’l-Hasan

 

[2] [Qur’an, 14:10]

[3] [Qur’an, 7:172]

[4]  [Bukhari #4775]

[5] [Qur’an, 10:23]

[6] [Qur’an, 10:24]

[7]  [Qur’an, 39:8]

[8] [Qur’an, 10:105]

[9]  [Qur’an, 30:30]

[10]  [Qur’an, 27:14]

[11]  [Qur’an, 52:35]

[12]  [Qur’an, 21:22]

[13]  [Qur’an, 23:91]

[14]  [Qur’an, 16:17]

[15]  [Qur’an, 45:3]

[16]  [Qur’an, 8:9]

[17] [Qur’an, 4:165]

[18]  [Qur’an, 12:105]

[19]  [Qur’an, 17:15]

[20]  [Qur’an, 41:5]

[21]  [Qur’an, 10:96-97]