The Existence of Allah 1

The Existence of Allah 1

By Dr. Muhammad Sa`id Ramadan al-Buti

In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful

ALLAH

– Meaning of word Allah. Why we prefer it to the word ‘God.’

EXISTENCE OF ALLAH

– Basis of all issues of belief; all other beliefs stem from this

– Everything we see in the universe has a common origin, and we cannot hope to understand its full reality without looking to this common origin.

– If someone says, ‘I don’t believe in God,’ then that person should undertake a fresh examination of the issue of His existence and the absence of his belief in Him, lest he make a grave blunder in his perception and understanding of the universe and the purpose of his existence.

– If we are to undertake a scientific investigation, we must have an obvious or intuitive reality which we rely upon in the end, otherwise we will be in a continuous loop, and will be unable to reach a conclusion.

– Let us take the following four intuitive facts as our premises:

1. The invalidity of preponderance without a favoring factor.
2. The invalidity of infinite succession
3. The invalidity of circular definition

4. The law of causality

1. The invalidity of preponderance without a favoring factor.

In other words, if something is existing or proceeding in a certain manner, it is absolutely intuitive that it will not change and alter its course without the existence of an agent which causes this change. This is something agreed upon by every rational person, i.e. that something will remain in its original state and can only be changed by the imposition of some agent of change.

The existence of everything we can imagine or postulate is either necessary, or feasible, or impossible. This universe’s existence is feasible, by which we mean that it is not inconceivable that it should stop existing. So, the universe’s existence is not necessary. Anything of this nature must necessarily have an external agent which gives preference to one of its potentialities to the exclusion of others. In other words, this universe which originally had an equal chance of existence and non-existence, must have had an external causal agent which gave a greater preponderance to the potentiality of existence, and this power is the power of Allah. As an analogy, we may consider a scale whose two pans are balanced. Is it possible, then, that one of the pans should weigh down without any causal agent?!

2. The invalidity of infinite succession

Having understood this, someone might venure to suggest that things came into existence from previously existing things, and so on to infinity. But this does not solve the problem, for each stage in this suppose infinite succession is still something whose existence is only feasible, and cannot become preponderate without an external agent. In fact, it depends on the previous stage for its existecne, and so on backward. So, each stage cannot exist unless the one before it exists, and thus each stage, in itself, has no causal effect. It is like a long succession of zeros, which can have no value unless there is a value-bearing digit somewhere at the start of the chain. So, the causal effect would always go back to the previous stages, upto infinity, and this necessitates one of the following. Either:

(i) None of the links in this chain of succession exist, which is a void conclusion, Or:

(ii) There must be an inital innate source of the life, power and movement, which implies that the concept of infinite succession is void.

3. The invalidity of circular definition

So, now someone might concede that, alright, the universe is created and not eternal, but that its causal agent was nothing more than an innate, gradual interaction. But, this also is invalid, because it implies self-recursion. Consider : What was the first atom or nucleus which appeared from the murky depths of non-existence, into existence? Whatever this was, what was the causal agent which brought it out of non-existence into the realm of existence? If someone says that the agent was innate interaction, this would imply that the existence of this atom, while it was still non-existent hinged upon its coming into existence, and that once it came into existence, this assisted in its becoming the cause of its own existence! This is plainly a circular definition, a prime example of self-recursion!

Thus, we have established with certainty that the universe is created, and that it must have an external causal agent, which is Allah.

4. The law of causality

Consider this situation: You go to the airport, and both of your hands are occupied with your luggage, so that you would not be able to open the airport door without putting down your bags. But then, when you approach the door, it opens automatically, and you walk through gratefully. Now indside the airport, you stop and look back. You see several more people coming through the door, which each time opens automatically. You discover that there is a hidden mechanism in place which causes it to open upon the detection of pressue on the ground in its proximity. You intuitively reach the conclusion that this mechanism must have a specific purpose behind it, namely: to facilitate matters for travellers. Furthermore, you realize that this purpose cannot be attributed to the inanimate machinery, and that there must be a thinking individual(s) behind the idea.

Now, if we look at the composition of this amazing universe, we see the composition of its components, and sub-components; its minute atoms and particles even smaller, all of which have well- specified tasks or roles, down to the smallest member.. Further, these all interact and intedepend to such an extent that if even the smallest deviation from these roles would lead to chaos and disorder. If we reflect, we see that all these things, from the smallest electron to the earth and other heavenly bodies, all function in their roles, so many of which direclty facilitate the life of man, and are to his benefit. We see that the earth has a particular weight, upon which is based its well-defined gravity. If the earth were heavier, its gravity would be correspondingly greater, and we would be unable to walk on its surface as we do now. Rather, we might be plastered to its surface, unable to move! Similarly, if the earth’s weight were less, the gravity would be less, and we would not be able to remain settled on it as we ould like, and may float instead. In short, we see that the earth has a particular goal, which is to be an abode favorable for mankind.

If we look at our bodies, every limb, every organ, every cepillary and nerve has a precise, well-defined role, and they all interact with amazing precision and directedness.

So, in the same way as the law of causality leads us to conclude that man-made devices have a thinking power behind them, the existence of functionality in such great mechanisms as those of the universe, are a certain proof that there is a manager behind it, Who has assigned these roles to everything.


[1] Kubra al-Yaqiniyyat al-Kawniyyah

 

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