Islam: The Complete Way of Life (3) Political Value

(3) Islam: The Complete Way of Life (Some Proofs from the Qur’an and the Authentic Ahadith)

Political Values

By Mamarinta Omar Mababaya and Dr. Norlain D. Mababaya


Political Values

Power and Sovereignty

“To Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth. Whether you show what is in your minds or conceal it, Allah calls you to account for it. He forgives whom He pleases and punishes whom He pleases, for Allah has power over all things.” (Qur’an 2:285)

“Say: “O Allah! Rabb (Sustainer) of Power (and Rule), You give Power to whom You please, and You stripes off Power from whom You pleases. You endow with honour whom You please and You bring low whom You please. In Your hand is all Good. Verily, over all things you have power.” (Qur’an 3:24; also 3:29)

“To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth; and Allah has power over all things.” (Qur’an 3:189; 11:4)

“Do you not know that to Allah (Alone) belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? He punishes whom He pleases, and He forgives whom He pleases. And Allah has power over all things.” (Qur’an 5:40; also 5:120)

“If Allah touches you with affliction, none can remove it but if He touches you with happiness, He has power over all things. He is Irresistibly Supreme over His servants. And He is the Wise, acquainted with all things.” (Qur’an 6:17-18)

“It is He (Allah) Who has made you the inheritors of the earth. He has raised you in ranks, some above others; that He may try you in the gifts He has given you: for your Rabb (Sustainer) is quick in punishment. Yet, He is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Qur’an 6:165)

Goal

“To each is a goal to which Allah turns him; then strive together (as in a race) towards all that is good. Whosoever you are, Allah will bring you together; for Allah has power over all things.” (Qur’an 2:148)

“Say: ‘Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds.'” (Qur’an 6:162)

“…And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and to all that is between. And to Him is the final goal (of all).” (Qur’an 5:18)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses see: 5:105 and 40:2-3)

Obedience to God, His Messenger and to Rulers/Authorities

“O you who believe! Obey God, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to God and His Messenger, if you do believe in God and the Last Day: that is best and most suitable for final determination.” (Qur’an 4:59)

Ibn Abbast narrated that the Prophetr said: “Whoever disapproves of something done by his ruler then he should be patient, for whoever disobeys the ruler even a little (a span) will die as those who died in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance (i.e., rebellious sinners).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9Hadith. 176)

Anas bin Malikt narrated that Allah’s Messenger r said: “You should listen to and obey your ruler even if he was an Ethiopian (black) slave whose head looks like a raisin.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith No.256)

‘Abdullah t narrated that the Prophetr said: “A Muslim has to listen to and obey (the order of his ruler) whether he likes it or not as long as his orders involve not one in disobedience (to Allah), but if an act of disobedience (to Allah) is imposed one should not listen to it or obey it.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith No.258)

‘Auf bin Malikt narrated that Allah’s Messenger r said: “The best of your rulers are those whom you love and who love you, who invoke God’s blessings upon you and you invoke His blessings upon them. And the worst of your rulers are those whom you hate and who hate you and whom you curse and who curse you.” It was asked (by those present): “Should we not overthrow them with the help of the sword? He said: “No, as long as they establish prayer among you. If you then find anything detestable in them, you should hate their administration, but do not withdraw yourselves from their obedience.” (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4573)

Discouragement to Seek Power/to Rule

‘Abdur Rahman bin Samuraht narrated that Allah’s Messenger r said: “O ‘ Abdur Rahman bin Samurah! Do not seek to be a ruler, for if you are given authority on your demand, you will be held responsible for it, but if you are given it without asking for it, then you will be helped (by Allah) in it. If you ever take an oath to do something and later on you find that something else is better, then do what is better and make expiation for your oath..” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 260)

Accountability

Abdullah bin Umar t narrated that he heard the Prophet r saying: “Every one of you is a guardian, and responsible for what is in his custody. The ruler is a guardian of his subjects and responsible for them; a husband is a guardian of his family and is responsible for it; a lady is a guardian of her husband’s house and is responsible for it, and a servant is a guardian of his master’s property and is responsible for it. A man is a guardian of his father’s property and is responsible for it so all of you are guardians and responsible for your wards and things under your care).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 592; also Vol. 3 Hadith 73)

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Maliht that Ubaidullah bin Ziyad t visited Ma’qil bin Yasar t in his illness. Ma’qil said to him: I am narrating to you a Hadith which I would have never narrated to you had I not been in death-bed. I heard Allah’s Messengerr said: “A ruler who has been entrusted with the affairs of the Muslims, but he if makes no endeavours (for the material and moral uplift) and does not sincerely mean (their welfare) would not enter Paradise along with them.” (Muslim Vol. 1 Hadith 264)

Law of Equality and Justice

“In the Law of Equality there is (saving of) life to you, O you men of understanding that you may restrain yourselves.” (Qur’an 2:179)

“Allah does command you to render back your Trusts to those to whom they are due; and when you judge between people that you judge with justice. Verily how excellent is the teaching, which He gives you! For Allah is He Who hears and sees all things.” (Qur’an 4:58)

“O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. For not the lusts (of your departure), lest you swerve, and if you distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do.” (Qur’an 4:135)

“O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety. And fear Allah for Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do.” (Qur’an 5:8)

“Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and giving to kith and kin, and He forbids all indecent deed, and evil and rebellion, He instructs you that you may receive admonition.” (Qur’an 16:90)

Anas Bin Malikt narrated that the Prophet r said: “The prescribed Law of Allah is the equality in punishment (i.e. Qisas).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 6 Hadith 26)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses see: 2:178 and 6:164.)

Encouragement for Giving Right Judgement

‘Amir bin Al-‘As t is reported to have said that he heard Allah’s Messenger r as saying: “When a judge gives a decision, and he tries his best to decide correctly and is right (in his decision), there are two rewards for him and if he gave judgement and did his best (to arrive at a correct decision) but erred, there is one reward for him.” (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2314; Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4261)

Abdur Rahman bin Bakrat reported: “My father…heard Allah’s Messenger r as saying: ‘One of you should not judge between two persons when he is angry.” (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4264)

Prohibition of Graft and Corruption

Narrated Khaula Al-Ansariyat : “I heard Allah’s’ Messengerr said: ‘Some people spend Allah’s wealth (Muslim’s wealth) in an unjust manner; such people will be put in the (Hell) Fire on the Day of Resurrection.'” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith347)

Mutual Consultation

“Those who respond to their Rabb (Sustainer), and establish regular prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for sustenance; and those who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) help and defend themselves.” (Qur’an 42:38-39)

Prohibition for Fighting/Murder and Other Crimes

Never should a Believer kill a Believer; except by mistake, and whoever kills a Believer by mistake it is ordained that he should free a believing slave. And pay blood money to the deceased’s family, unless they remit it freely. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a Believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is enough). If he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, blood-money should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. For those who find this beyond their means, (is prescribed) a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to Allah: for Allah has all knowledge and all wisdom. (Qur’an 4:92)

“If a man kills a Believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (forever): and the wrath and curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful chastisement is prepared for him.” (Qur’an 4:193)

“Nor take life ¾ which Allah has made sacred ¾ except for just cause. And if anyone is slain wrongfully, we have given his heir authority (to demand Qisas or to forgive): but let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped by the (Law).” (Qur’an 17:33)

Abu Bakraht narrated: “I heard Allah’s Messengerr saying, ‘When two Muslims fight (meet) each other with their swords, both the murderer as well as the murdered will go to Hell-fire.” I said: “O Allah’s Messenger!. It is all right for the murderer but what about the murdered one? Allah’s Messenger replied, “He surely had the intention to kill his companion.'” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 1 Hadith 30)

Ibn Umart narrated that Allah’s Messenger r said: “A faithful believer remains at liberty regarding his religion, unless he kills somebody unlawfully.” (Al-Bukhari Vol.9 Hadith 2)

Abdullah Ibn Umart narrated that the Prophetr said: “Whoever carries arms against us, is not from us.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 13)

Ibn Abbast narrated that the Prophetr said: “The most hated persons with Allah are three: 1) A person who deviates from the right conduct (i.e., an evil-doer), in the Haram (sanctuaries of Makkah and Madinah); 2. A person who seeks that the traditions of the period of ignorance should remain in Islam; and 3. A person who seeks to shed somebody’s blood without any right.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith21)

Conditions for Killing a Believer

Abdullah t narrated that the Prophet r said: “The blood of a Muslim, who confesses that La ilaha il-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah) and that I am the Messenger of Allah, cannot be shed except in three cases: 1. life for life (in cases of intentional murders without right i.e., Al-Qisas ¾Law of equality in punishment); 2. a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse; and 3. the one who turns renegade from Islam (apostate) and leaves the group of Muslims (by innovating heresy, new ideas and new things etch. in Islamic religion).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 9 Hadith 17)

Prohibition of Suicide

“O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves in vanities: but let there be amongst you traffic and trade by mutual good-will: nor kill (or destroy) yourselves: for verily Allah has been to you Most Merciful.” (Qur’an 4:29)

Abu Hurairah t narrated that the Prophet r said: “He who commits suicide by throttling shall keep on throttling himself in the Hell-fire (forever) and he who commits suicide by stabbing himself shall keep on stabbing himself in the Hell-fire (forever).” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 2 Hadith 446)

Jundab t narrated that the Prophet r said: “A man was inflicted with wounds and he committed suicide, and so Allah said: ‘My slave has caused death on himself hurriedly, so I forbid Paradise for him.'” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 445)

Prohibition of Betrayal

Ibn ‘Umar narrated that the Prophetr said: “Every betrayer will have a flag which will be fixed on the Day of Resurrection, and the flag ‘s prominence will be made in order to show the betrayal he committed..” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 411)

Fighting against Oppression, Transgression and Persecution

Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors. And slay them wherever you catch them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out; for persecution is worse than slaughter. But fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the punishment of those who reject faith. But if they cease, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them on until there is no more persecution and the religion becomes Allah’s. But if they cease, let there be no hostility except to those who practice oppression. (Qur’an 2:192-193)

“The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrong-doing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice: for such there will be a Chastisement grievous.” (Qur’an 42:42)

Ibn Umart narrated that the Prophet r said: “Oppression will be a darkness on the Day of Resurrection.” (Al-Bukhari 3:627; Muslim Vol.4 Hadith 6249)

Anas bin Malik t narrated that Allah’s Messenger r said: “Help your brother, whether he is an oppressor or he is an oppressed one. People asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! It is all right to help him if he is oppressed, but how should we help him if he is an oppressor? The Prophet said: “By preventing him from oppressing others.” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 624 and Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6254)

Abu Dharrt reported Allah’s Messenger r as saying: “Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said: ‘My servants, I have made oppression unlawful for Me and unlawful for you, so do not commit oppression against one another…'” (Muslim Vol. 4 Hadith 6246)

(For other relevant Ahadith, see: Al-Bukhari Vol. 3 Hadith 628 and Hadith 629.)

Conditions for Fighting/Waging War against Enemies

“Fight in the Cause of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress limits; for Allah loves not transgressors.” (Qur’an 2:190)

“To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged; and verily Allah is Most Powerful for their aid. (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right, (for no cause) except that they say, “Our Rabb (Sustainer) is Allah.”… (They are) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give zakat, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs.” (Qur’an 22:39-41)

Jihad/Fighting in the Cause of Allah

“And why should you not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are ill-treated (and oppressed); men, women and children, whose cry is: “Our Rabb (Sustainer)! Rescue us from this town; whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect; and raise for us from You one who will help!?” (Qur’an 4:75)

“Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who reject Faith fight in the cause of Evil; so fight against the friends of Satan. Feeble indeed is the cunning of Satan.” (Qur’an 4:76)

O you who believe! Shall I lead you to a bargain that will save you from a grievous Chastisement? That you believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that you strive (your utmost) in the Cause of Allah, with your wealth and your persons: that will be best for you, if you but knew! He will forgive you your sins, and admit you to the Gardens of Eternity: that is indeed the supreme Triumph. (Qur’an 61:10-12)

Abu Sa’id Al-Khudrit narrated that somebody asked, “Allah’s Messenger! Who is the best among the people? Allah’s Messenger replied: “A believer who strives his utmost in Allah’s Cause with his life and property…” (Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 45)

It has been narrated on the authority of Sahl bin Sa’d As-Sa’idit that the Messenger of Allah said: “The journey undertaken by a person in the morning (for Jihad) in the way of Allah (will merit a reward) better than the world and all that is in it.” (Muslim Vol. 3 Hadith 4640, also see Al-Bukhari Vol. 4 Hadith 50)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 4:95-96 and 9:20.)

Punishment/Retaliation

“And if you punish/retaliate, let your punishment be proportionate to the wrong that has been done to you. But if you show patience, that is indeed the best (course) for those who are patient.” (Qur’an 16:126)

“The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for (Allah) loves not those who do wrong.” (Qur’an 42:40)

Peace and Reconciliation

“Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; and turn away from the ignorant.” (Qur’an 7:199)

But if the enemy incline toward peace, do (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is the One that hears and knows (all things).” (Qur’an 8:61)

“. . . Let them forgive and overlook. Do you not wish that Allah should forgive you? For Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Qur’an 24: 22)

“The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for Allah loves not those who do wrong.” (Qur’an 42:40)

“Tell those who believe, to forgive those who do not hope for the Days of Allah; it is for Him to recompense (for good or ill) each people according to what they have earned.” (Qur’an 45:14)

If two parties among the Believers fall into a quarrel make you peace between them: but if one of them transgresses beyond bounds against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that transgresses until it complies with the command of Allah; but if it complies, then make peace between them with justice, and be fair: for Allah loves those who are fair (and just). The believers are but a single Brotherhood: so make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers: And fear Allah, that you may receive Mercy. (Qur’an 49:9-10 also see Qur’an 4:90 and 5:45)

Conciliation and Compromise

Abdullah, the son of Amr Bin ‘Auft reported his father has having said on his grandfather’s authority: “I heard Allah’s Messenger r saying: ‘Conciliation is permissible among the Muslims, except the compromise that makes the lawful as unlawful or makes the unlawful as lawful.'” (Ibn Majah Vol. 3 Hadith 2353)

Fulfillment of Treaties

“(But the treaties are) not dissolved with those Pagans with whom you have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in ought, nor aided any one against you. So fulfill your engagements with them to the end of their term: for Allah loves the righteous.” (Qur’an 9:4)

Patience/Perseverance

“…Seek (Allah’s) help with patient, perseverance and prayer…” (Qur’an 2:45)

“O you who believe! Seek help with patient, perseverance and prayer: for Allah is with those who patiently persevere. And say not of those who are slain in the way of Allah: ‘They are dead.’ Nay, they are living, through you perceive (it) not. Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods, lives and the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere. Who say, when afflicted with calamity; ‘To Allah we belong, and to Him is our return’: they are the those on whom (descend) blessings from their Rabb (Sustainer), and Mercy. And these are the one that receive guidance.” (Qur’an 2:153-157)

“For Muslim men and women, for believing men and women for devout men and women for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in charity, for men and women who fast, for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah’s remembrance for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.” (Qur’an 33:35)

(For other relevant Qur’anic verses, see: 4:90 and 5:45 7:126 and 13:20-24.)

 


 

Advertisements

3 comments on “Islam: The Complete Way of Life (3) Political Value

  1. […] : The Quran Blog – Enlighten Yourself Etiketler: Complete, islam, Life, Political, Value Bu yazı Çarşamba, 23 Haziran 2010, 06:03 […]

  2. […] : Comments for The Quran Blog – Enlighten Yourself Etiketler: Comment, Complete, islam, İslamiyet, Life, Political, sitesi, Value Bu yazı […]

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s