The Islamic concept of worship

By: M. Ramadan

Islam is a comprehensive system of worship (`Ibadah) and legislation (Shari`ah)

In Islam, worship that Muslims are commanded to perform includes the meaning of extreme humility before
Allah () together with the extreme love for Him (swt).

Many people including some Muslims misunderstand the concept of worship in Islam. Worship is commonly taken to mean performing ritualistic acts such as prayers, fasting, paying Zakat and doing the rituals of Hajj. This limited understanding of worship is only one part of the meaning of worship in Islam (Ritual worship).

Islam has widened the scope of worship to include every virtuous action (our daily actions in this life) that is sincerely performed in compliance with the commandments of
Allah () and in order to seek his pleasure (Non-Ritual worship).

‘Ibadah is a comprehensive system

‘Ibadah, as understood in Islam, is a comprehensive term used to describe everything that Allah () loves and approves of from apparent ‘external’ or hidden ‘internal’ sayings and deeds ‘actions’ of a person.” It also includes a total renunciation of everything that negates or is in opposition to what
Allah () loves and approves of.

Allah () has said (interpretation of the meaning): (I [Allah] have not created Jinn and mankind, but to worship Me. I do not ask from them any sustenance and I do not ask that they should feed Me. Surely, Allah is The All-Provider, The Owner of Power, The Most Strong) [Qur’an 51:56-58].

And in another verse,
Allah () has said (interpretation of the meaning): (Say, O Muhammad: Truly, My prayer and My Rites, My life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Rabb of the worlds. [Qur’an 6:163]

Islam looks at the individual as a whole. He is required to submit himself completely to Allah, as the Qur’an instructed Rasul Allah (saas) do: Say (O (Rasul Allah) my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death belong to Allah; He has no partner and I am ordered to be among those who submit (Muslims) (6:162-163).

The natural result of this submission is that all of one’s activities should conform to the instructions of the one to whom the person is submitting. Islam, being a way of life, requires that its followers model their life according to its teachings in every aspect, religious or otherwise. This might sound strange to some people who think of religion as a personal relationship between the individual and Allah, having no impact on one’s activities and outside rituals. As a matter of fact Islam does not think much of mere rituals when they are performed mechanically and have no influence on one’s inner life. The Qur’an addresses the believers and their neighbors from among the People of the Book who were arguing with them about the change of the direction of the Qiblah (the direction in which Muslims pray) in the following verse: (It is not righteousness that you turn your faces toward the East or the West, but righteous is he who believes in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Book and the prophets, and gives his beloved money to his relatives and the orphans and the needy and for the ransoming of captives; and who observes prayer and pays the poor-due; and those who fulfil their promises when they have made one; and the patient in poverty and affliction and the steadfast in time of war. It is those who have proved truthful and it is those who are the God-fearing) (2:177). The deeds in the above verse are the deeds of righteousness and they are only a part of worship. Rasul Allah (saas) told us about faith, which is the basis of worship, that it “is made up of sixty and some branches: the highest of which is the belief in the Oneness of Allah (that is, there is no Ilah but Allah) and the lowest in the scale of worship is removing obstacles and dirt from people’s way.” Decent work is considered in Islam a type of worship. Rasul Allah (saas) said: “Whoever finds himself at the nightfall tired of his work, God will forgive his sins.” Seeking knowledge is one of the highest types of worship. Rasul Allah (saas) told his companions “seeking knowledge is a (religious) duty on every Muslim.” In another saying he said: “Seeking knowledge for one hour is better than praying for seventy years.” Social courtesy and cooperation are part of worship when done for the sake of Allah as the Prophet told us: “Receiving your friend with a smile is a type of charity, helping a person to load his animal is a charity and putting some water in your neighbor’s bucket is a charity.” It is worth noting that even performing one’s duties is considered a sort of worship. Rasul Allah (saas) told us that whatever one spends for his family is a type of charity; he will be rewarded for it if he acquires it through legal means. Kindness to the members of one’s family is an act of worship as when one puts a piece of food in his spouse’s mouth. Not only this, but even the acts we enjoy doing very much are considered worship when they are performed according to the instructions of Rasul Allah (saas). He told his companions that they would be rewarded even for having sexual intercourse with their wives. The companions were astonished and asked, “How are we going to be rewarded for doing something we enjoy very much?” Rasul Allah (saas) asked them, “Suppose you satisfy your desires illegally; don’t you think you will be punished for that?” They replied, “Yes.” “So,” He said, “by satisfying it legally with your wives, you are rewarded for it.” This means they are acts of worship. Thus, Islam does not consider sex a dirty thing that one should avoid. It is dirty and a sin only when it is satisfied outside marital life. It is clear, from the previous discussion that the concept of worship in Islam is a comprehensive concept that includes all the positive activities of the individual. This, of course, is in agreement with the all-inclusive nature of Islam as a way of life. It regulates human life on all levels: individual, social, economic, political and spiritual. That is why Islam provides guidance in the smallest details of one’s life on all these levels. Thus, following these details is following Islamic instructions in that specific area. It is a very encouraging element when one realizes that Allah considers all his activities as acts of worship. This should lead the individual to seek Allah’s pleasure in his actions and always try to do them in the best possible manner, whether he is observed by his superiors or is alone. There is always the permanent supervisor, who knows everything: Allah. Discussing the non-ritual worship in Islam first does not mean under evaluating the importance of the ritual worship. Actually, ritual worship, if performed in true spirit, elevates man morally and spiritually and enables him to carry on his activities in all walks of life according to the Guidance of Allah.

‘Ibadah is an obedience

Once, ‘Adiyy Bin Hatim entered while Rasul Allah (saas) was reciting a verse from the Qur’an: “They took their scholars and monks as lords other than Allah and [also] the Messiah, Son of Mary. And they were not ordered except to worship one Ilah “God” [9:31] ‘Adiyy (who had been a Christian), said: “O Rasul Allah, they did not worship them.” Rasul Allah (saas) replied, “Did they not tell them that the prohibited was lawful and that the lawful was prohibited and they followed them in that?” When ‘Adiyy admitted, “Yes,” Rasul Allah (saas) stated, “That was their worship of them.” [Ahmad and Al-Tirmizi]

Thus worship was defined as obedience: a fact that becomes evident from even a superficial study of the Qur’an in which Allah (swt) orders repeatedly: “Obey Allah and the Messenger.” [3:32, 3:132, 4:59, 8:1, 8:64, 24:54, 47:33, 58:13 and 64:12. Many other verses, although worded differently, carry the same meaning.] “Legislation is only for Allah. He has commanded that you not worship any but Him. That is the right religion, but most of the people do not know.” [12:40]

Two types of shirk were common both before and after the prophethood of Rasul Allah (saas). The first of these is the direction of acts of worship (especially supplication) to others besides Allah while still claiming belief in Him. The Qur’an orders: “And do not invoke besides Allah another god. There is no god but Him.” [12:40]

The other type of shirk is the willful adherence to laws and rulings other than His. “Do you not consider those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you and what was revealed before you? They wish to refer legislation to Taghoot [i.e. false objects of worship or those transgressors who usurp the divine right of government] while they were commanded to reject it.” [4:60]

What is the aim of humanity? What is the purpose for which human beings exist on earth, to what ends do they strive? What will occur to them if they strive to those ends and what will occur to them if they did not strive to those ends? Since Islam is a religion, which sees itself as revelation from God and the truth, Muslims would feel that human beings have a set purpose here on earth; that in everything of God’s creation there is wisdom. There is nothing of God’s creation that does not have any wisdom. There is nothing for sport or play and so therefore human beings have a purpose, and that purpose has been elucidated for them in the teaching of Islam. They were created to worship Allah. A verse from the Qur’an says that Allah says that He has not created human beings except to worship Him. So therefore, the essence of humanity is the same between male and female, and they also share the same aim and that is to worship Allah. And that is the most important issue in the Islamic culture and civilization. You know that the Islamic culture and civilization is rooted in religious belief.

The civilization of Islam – a civilization, which is 1400 years old – is one, which is rooted in religion. For a Muslim the greatest aim is to serve God, to worship God alone, and that is what the word Muslim means.

The real purpose of Islam in declaring that ‘Ibadah embraces the total life of man is to make worship play an effective role in strengthening our attachments with Allah and to make worship play a practical role in reforming human life.

Two Essential Conditions

It is a must that two great and important matters be considered for actions to be acceptable:

[1st.] That the one undertaking the action must intend only the pleasure of Allah (). [2nd.] The action must be in agreement with the Sunnah of His Messenger (saas). If any of these two conditions are not fulfilled, then the action will neither be righteous, nor accepted by Allah.

Ibn Katheer says in his Tafser [3/114]: [So, for an action to be acceptable it has to fulfil two conditions. [1st.] It must be sincere for Allah alone. [2nd.] It must be correct in accordance with the Shari’ah. So if the action is sincere, but not correct, it will not be acceptable].

The proof for this is in His saying: [Whosoever expects to meet His Rabb ‘Lord’, then let him work actions of righteousness and in the worship of his Rabb ‘Lord’ associate no one as a partner] [Al-Kahf 18:110]. In this noble Aayah Allah commanded that the action should be righteous ‘in agreement with the Shari’ah’ and it should be sincere ‘associating none with Him’.

Similar to this is the saying of Rasul Allah ‘saas’: (Indeed Allah does not look at your faces or your wealth But He looks at your hearts and your actions) (Hadith Saheeh, related by Muslim (2564), Ibn Majah (4143) and Ahmad (2/285) from Abu Hurayrah (raa). The wording with Muslim is: ” … neither your bodies nor your faces … “.

Al-Lalika`e relates in his Sharh Usul I’tiqad Ahl Al-Sunnah wa Al-Jama’ah that Sa’ed Ibn Jubayr (d.95H) (raa) said: [No word is acceptable except with action and no action is acceptable except with words and no word nor action are acceptable except with intention and no word, action or intention is acceptable except when it confirms to the Sunnah].

Requirements and Conditions of ‘Ibadah

In order to be able to perform it as it is prescribed, we must know the requirements and conditions of true worship.

    Sincerity. One of these required conditions that a Muslim should be aware of while performing any worship is sincerity. Allah ()
said: [So whoever hopes for the meeting with His Lord let him work deeds of righteousness and a
ssociate none as a partner in the worship of His Lord] [18:110]. Rasul Allah [saas] said: “Indeed God does not look at your faces nor your wealth but He looks at your hearts and your actions.” Also there is the Hadeeth Qudsee where Rasul Allah [saas] said that Allah () said: [I am in no need of having partners. Thus, whoever does an action for someone else’s sake as well as Mine, will have that action rejected by Me].

Correctness and conformity. Another vital condition of worship is that it is correct so that it may be acceptable to Allah. Our Worship of Allah should be as He and His Messenger, have commanded us. Allah () says: [O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not let your actions be done in vain (Useless)] [47:33]. Rasul Allah [saas] has said: [Whomever does an action which we have not commanded will have it rejected]. And He, also said: [Whomever does an action in a way different from ours will have it rejected]. Fudayl ibn ‘Ayyaad: [i.e. a member of the second generation of Muslims] said regarding the verse: [that He may test you, which of you is best in deeds]. [11:7] [The most sincere and the most correct], if it is correct but not sincere it will not be accepted and, if it is sincere but not correct it will not be accepted until it is both sincere and correct. Sincere means that nothing but the Face of God is sought and correct means that it is in conformity with the Sunnah].

Ihsan Another characteristic of our worship is being aware of the presence of Allah that His knowledge is with us and He sees and hears us. This point is called Ihsaan – perfection or doing one’s utmost. Allah ()
says: [The One Who sees you when you stand up for the prayer and when you move amongst those who prostrate themselves] [ 26:218]. We all know the hadith of
Gabriel when he said to the Messenger: [Ihsaan is that you worship Allah as if you see Him and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you]. Allah () has also commanded us: [So call upon Him (out of) Fear and Hope] [6:56]. Rasul Allah [saas] used to supplicate: [I ask God for Paradise and I seek refuge in Him from the Fire]. The verse and the Hadeeth clearly tells us that our worship should be in between hoping for God’s Mercy and reward and fearing His punishment. So these are the essential points, which we must keep in mind concerning our worship, namely:

We must acknowledge that Worship of Allah is the purpose of our existence.

We must have absolute Sincerity in fulfilling that purpose.

We must observe Correctness of our worship by conducting it in the manner of the Sunnah of the Messenger.

Worshipping God by combining Love, Fear and Hope; and Maintaning Ihsaan – a keen awareness, excellent consciousness of Allah. Here Allah () gives the example of one who learns and builds all of his actions on the essential points concerning the worship of his Lord, and one who does not. “Which then is best? He who lays the foundation of his house upon Taqwa (i.e. Allah-consciousness) and His Good Pleasure, or he who lays the foundation of his house upon an undetermined sand cliff ready to crumble down, so that it crumbles down with him into the Fire of Hell?” [9:109].

Let’s be mindful of the purpose of our existence, aware that our worship and good deeds could be frustrated if they are insincere or incorrect, striving to combine love and fear and hoping to attain the degree of Ihsan.

At the day of Judgement, some people will find that their deeds and actions have been rejected By Allah and turned into floating dust. In this regard Allah ()
says: [And We shall turn to whatever actions they did and turn them into scatter
ed dust] [25:23] but rather let us become cautious and send something foreword for the Day of Judgement, the Day when we will be in great need for good actions — that is our sincere and correct worship. Let us try to achieve the degree of Ihsan by worshipping Allah as if we see Him, and being constantly aware that even if we don’t see Him, He sees us.

Characteristics of The individual’s acts of worship

(1) Dynamic and Living

Acts of ‘Ibadah are the dynamic, positive actions that the individual take to live a life according to the method laid down by Allah. It stands to reason that the life that you and I lead is an embodiment of our ‘Ibadah. Our ‘Ibaadah, therefore, embraces our sleeping and our being awake, taking food and drinking water, learning and even kissing our little babies. The way we conduct our business is an extension of our ‘Ibadah and even our pleasures.

The ultimate approach to ‘Ibadah is that of Ihsan (perfection or doing one’s utmost): worshipping Allah as if you are seeing Him. Our Nabii Muhammad (saas) defines Ihsan as follows: [Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him. If you cannot comprehend or perceive His presence, be sure He sees you].

Acts of worship are not rituals to be performed without thought or feeling. They are meant to put the human soul in living contact with a Living Ilah (God). We must know the purpose of prayer, fasting, etc. and carry them out in their true spirit. Allah listens to man’s supplications and answers his prayers. In every age there arise, among Muslims, saints who have closeness and communication with Allah. Their example shows others that there is a Living Ilah Who speaks to man.

(2) Humble:

Worship must be humble, inspired by both awe of Allah and intimacy of feeling. ‘Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said: Rasul Allah (saas) was talking with us and we were talking with him, but when the time for prayer came he seemed not to know us or we him. [Narrated by Al-Azdi].

Rasul Allah (saas) said: Many a (people) get nothing but fatigue from their prayer; and many a (people) get from their fasting nothing but hunger and thirst. [Narrated by Al-Nasa’i].


The Salaf have understood the Deen of Allah as well as the essence of this life and its inescapable leading to the Hereafter, so they felt aversion for the distractions and the tribulations of the world. They found no sleep and their heart kept away from desires. They kept above the insignificant concerns of life. Their biographies abound with stories that show their striving in righteousness, repentance and their strong will in worship and humbleness:

Al-Hasan Al-Basri
said, “Whoever competes with you in the Deen then try to surpass him, and whoever competes with you in the matters of this life then throw it back at him.” Whenever he missed a Salah in congregation,
Ibn ‘Umar (raa)
used to fast one day, pray for one whole night, and free a slave. Abu Musa Al Ash’ari
used to apply himself so much in worship at the end of his life that he was told, “Why don’t you slow down and be gentle with yourself?” He replied, “When the horses are released for a race and are close to the finish line, they give all the strength they have. What is left of my life is less than that.” He maintained the same level of devotion and worship until he died.

Mawriq Al-‘Ajli
said, “I did not find an example, for the believer in this life, better than a man on a plank in the sea, imploring, ‘O Lord, O Lord’ hoping that Allah will save him.”

‘Usamah said, “Whenever you see Sufyan Al-Thawri, it is as if you see someone in ‘a ship fearing to drown,’ one would often hear him say, ‘O Lord, save me, save me!’
” Fatimah Bint Abd Al-Malik,
the wife of the Khalifah ‘Umar Ibn Abd Al-Aziz
said, “I have never seen a person offering salah or fasting more than he did, or a person fearing the Lord more than than him. After offering Salat Al-‘Isha, he would sit down and cry until he becomes sleepy, then he would wake up again and continue crying until sleep overtakes him.”

Amir Ibn ‘Abd Allah
was once asked, “How can you tolerate being awake all night, and thirsty in the intense heat of the day?” He replied, “Is it anything more that postponing the food of the day to nighttime, and the sleep of the night to daytime? This is not a big matter.” When the night came, he would say, “Remembrance of the heat of hellfire has taken sleepiness from me.” And he would not sleep until dawn.

Ahmad Ibn Harb
said, “I wonder how the one who knows that above him, paradise is being embellished, and below him, hell fire is being kindled, and yet sleeps between them!”
was almost seventy years old and he never missed the first takbirah (for salah in the masjid). I used to visit him frequently for more than two years and never saw him make up for even one Rakah.”

Abu Hayan
related that
his father
said, “Al-Rabi’ Ibn Khuthaym
was crippled and used to be carried to the congregational salah. So people told him, ‘You have an excuse (for not coming)’, he said, ‘I hear ‘Hayee ‘Ala Al-Salah’, the call to salah; so if you can come to it even by crawling, do so,” paraphrasing a hadith.

Abu Al-Mawahib Ibn Sarsari
said concerning Imam Abu Al-Qasim Ibn ‘Asakir, “I have never seen the like of him, and none had encompassed as many good characteristics as he did concerning his adherence to one way for forty years, making salah in the first row unless he had an excuse, I’Tikaf during Ramadan and the ten days of Zu Al-Hijjah, and the lack of desire to accumulate properties and build houses, as he forbade himself these. He turned away any position of Imam or speaker, though they were offered to him, and he devoted himself to enjoin good and forbid evil, and he would not fear anyone in that.”      


Worship should be open to Allah and dedicated to Him, free from concerns about business and the hardships of this world. The Messenger of Allah indicated this by saying: Allah will not look at the prayer, which does not relate the man’s heart with his body. [Musnab Al-Firdausi]

Prayer is directed toward the hereafter; when you start praying, you leave this physical world.

Al-Hassan observed: A prayer without one’s heart into it is a fast road to punishment.


Worship should be impassioned, unsatiable and one should never be complacent about it. One should seek ever-greater nearness to Allah by personal prayer and by responding to Him as a faithful servant. A Qudsi
hadith says that Allah told Rasul Allah (saas): I will declare war against him who shows hostility to a pious worshipper of Mine. And the most beloved things with which My slave comes nearer to Me is what I have enjoined upon him. My slave continued to come closer to Me through performing Nawafil (praying or doing extra deeds besides what is obligatory) till I love him. So I become the sense of hearing with which he hears, and the sense of sight with which he sees, and the hand with which he grips, and the leg with which he walks. And if he asks Me, I will give him, and if he asks my protection, I will protect him, I do not do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of the believer, for he hates death, and I hate to disappoint him. [A hadith Qudsi narrated by Bukhari from Abu Hurairah.]


Worship should include supererogatory (nawafil) prayer at night (qiyam al layl). One should discipline oneself to become accustomed to prayer at night because it is the most effective armor of faith for a believer. Allah, the Almighty, has said: Truly the rising by night is most potent for governing (the soul), and most suitable for (framing) the word (of prayer and praise). [Qur’an 73:6 34]

Allah praises His obedient servants in these words: They were in the habit of sleeping but little by night, and in the hours of early dawn, they (were found) praying for forgiveness. [Qur’an 51:17-18] Their limbs do forsake their beds of sleep, the while they call on their Lord, in fear and hope, and they spend (in charity) out of the sustenance that We have bestowed on them. [Qur’an 32:16]

Qur’an-Oriented And Full Of Awe

To nourish one’s worship, one should allocate a certain time to read and think deeply about the Glorious Qur’an, especially at dawn because Allah the Almighty has said: The prayer and reading in the morning carry their testimony. [Qur’an 17:78]

Always bear in mind the following words of Allah concerning His book: Had we sent down this Qur’an to a mountain, verily, you would have seen it humble itself and cleave asunder for fear of Allah. [Qur’an 59:21]

Reading the Qur’an in this manner helps one to understand its message soberly, to ponder the awesome future of man, and to lament the melancholy fate of those who ignore the promises of Allah. The messenger of Allah said: “The Qur’an was revealed in all gravity, so when you read it try to be pensive.” (Abu Ya’la and Abu Naim).

The Prophet (s) said: “The best worship for my ummah is reading the Qur’an. (narrated by Abu Naim).

‘Abd Allah Ibn Masud related that the Prophet (s) said: Verily, the Qur’an is the food of Allah, so come closer to it if you are able. Verily, the Qur’an is the rope of Allah, bright light, good medicine, and a guide for those who hold on to it. When he strays, the Qur’an will remind him of the path; and when he is misguided, the Qur’an will correct him. Its miracle lasts forever, and will not be reduced by rejection. Read the Qur’an. Allah will reward each word of your reading tenfold; and W, ‘U, ‘M’ is not one word, but three . [Narrated by al-Hakim]

In his advice to Abu Dharr the Prophet (s) told him: Recite the Qur’an because this will cast light on the earth from the heavens? [Narrated by Ibn Haban]

Whoever declares lawful what [in the Qur’an] is prohibited denies the Qur’an. (Tirmidhi).

Constant In Supplication

Supplication forms the steps to Allah throughout one’s life because supplication in every detail of life is the essence of worship. One should use the supplications of the Prophet (s) when appropriate. Allah the Almighty has said: “Call upon Me, and I will respond to you.” [Qur’an 40:60] The following are 21 commonly used and illustrative supplications of the Prophet Muhammad (s):

(1) When Getting Up:                     

When the eyes open in the morning say: (Al-Hamdu li Allah Allazi A’hyana Ba’da Ma Amatana Wa Ilayhi Al-Nushoor) (All Praise be to Allah Who gave us life after having given us death and (our) final return (on the Day of judgement) is to Him. (Bukhaari, Abu Dawud, Nasa’ee).

(2) When Going to Bed

In Your name my Lord, O my Lord, I lie down, and in Your name I will get up. If you should take my soul, forgive me my sins, and if you should let me live another day, protect me as You protect Your righteous servants. [Recorded by Bukhari, Muslim Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah]

(3) When Getting Dressed and Undressed

O Allah! Grant me the good of getting dressed (or undressed) and the good for which these clothes were made; and I seek refuge in You from any evil in dressing (undressing) and from the evil of ill intent.

(4) When Entering the Bathroom

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from bad and evil things. (Bukhari, Muslim)

(5) When Leaving the Bathroom

I seek Your forgiveness (O Allah!). (Abu Da’ud)


(6) Before Meals

O Allah! Bless what You have bestowed upon us, and protect us from the punishment of Hell fire. In the name of Allah.

(7) After Meals

Praise be to Allah who has fed us, provided us drink, and made us Muslims. [Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah]

(8) When Leaving or Entering a House

In the name of Allah, I have put my trust in Allah, there is neither might nor power but in Allah. [Abu Da’ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i]

(9) When Going to the Mosque

O Allah! Place light in my heart, light in my sight, light in my hearing, light to my right, light to my left, light above me, light under me, light in front of me, light behind me, and grant me light. (Bukhari).

(10) While Entering the Mosque

O Allah! Open for me the doors of Your mercy. [Muslim, Abu Da’ud, al-Nasa’i]

(11) While Leaving the Mosque

O Allah, I beg of You Your Grace. [Muslim, Abu Da’ud, Nasa’i]

(12) After Daily Prayer (Salah)

If anyone extols Allah after every (regular daily) prayer thirty three times (or say subhanallah) and praises Allah thirty three times (or say alhamdulitiah) and declares His greatness thirty three times (or say Allahu akbar), and says, to complete a hundred,—Noone has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone, Who has no partner; to Him belongs all sovereignty, and to him is due all praise; and He has power over all things,” his sins will be forgiven even if these are as abundant as the foam of the sea. (Muslim).

(13) On Leaving a Meeting Glory be to You, O Allah: all praise is due to You: I bear witness that there is no deity but You. I beg your forgiveness and repent to You. (Abu Da’ud, al-Hakim).

(14) When Setting Out on a Trip

O Allah! We seek righteousness and piety from You in this journey of ours and deeds that please You. O Allah! Facilitate this journey of ours, and make it easy on us. O Allah! You are our companion during this journey and guardian of our family. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from any hardships of this journey, from evil sights, and from any harm to my property, home, and children. [Muslim, Ahmad, narrated by ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Umar.]

(15) When One Can Not Sleep

O Allah! The stars come; my eyes become quiet.(16) When Overwhelmed by a Problem or Sadness Allah suffices us and He is the best guardian. (Abu Da’ud)

(17) When Congratulating Newlyweds

May Allah Bless yours [your spouse], and you, and join you in a happy union. (Bukhari, Muslim).

(18) Before Sexual Intercourse with One’s Wife

In the name of Allah. O Allah! Protect us from Satan and prevent Satan from approaching the child you may bestow on us. (Bukhari).

(19) When Visiting the Sick

O Allah! Remove his (or her) suffering, O Lord of mankind. Grant healing for You are the Healer. There is no cure but from You. Restore his (or her) health with no trace of illness. (Bukhari).

(20) When Offering Condolences

What Allah has taken belongs to Him and to Him belongs what He has given. With Him everything has a limited term (in this world), so be patient and seek reward from Allah. (Bukhari).

(21) For the Dead in a Funeral Prayer

O Allah Forgive him (or her), have mercy upon him, give him peace, and absolve him. Receive him with honor and make his grave spacious. Wash him with water, snow and hail. Cleanse him from faults as you would cleanse a white garment from impurity. And give him an abode, in exchange, more excellent than his home (in this world), and a family better than his family, and a wife better than his wife. Admit him to Paradise, and protect him from the torment of the grave and the torment of the fire. (Bukhari).



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